Austria 1989Austria

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Austria
Austria 

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Austria - Introduction 1989
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Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. After the annexation to Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allied powers, Austria's 1955 State Treaty declared the country "permanently neutral" as a condition of the Soviet military withdrawal.


Austria - Geography 1989
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: 2,640 km total; Czechoslovakia 548 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Switzerland 164 km, FRG 784 km, Yugoslavia 311 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains with Alps in west and south; mostly flat, with gentle slopes along eastern and northern margins

Elevation

Natural resources: iron ore, crude oil, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower
Land use

Land use: 17% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 24% meadows and pastures; 39% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube


Austria - People 1989
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Population: 7,585,766 (July 1989), growth rate 0.1% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Austrian(s; adjective - Austrian

Ethnic groups: 99.4% German, 0.3% Croatian, 0.2% Slovene, 0.1% other

Languages: German

Religions: 85% Roman Catholic, 6% Protestant, 9% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 12 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: because of steep slopes, poor soils, and cold temperatures, population is concentrated on eastern lowlands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 79 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Austria - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Austria

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland; Burgenland, Karnten, Niederosterreich, Oberosterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Dependent areas

Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920, revised 1929 (reinstated 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal over age 19; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch: Chief of State - President Kurt WALDHEIM (since 8 July 1986; Head of Government - Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986; Vice Chancellor Alois MOCK (since 16 June 1986)

Legislative branch: Army, Flying Division

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, Council of Europe, CCC, DAC, ECE, EFTA, EMA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IDB - Inter-American Development Bank, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, IWC - International Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, WSG; Austria is neutral and is not a member of NATO or the EC

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Friedrich HOESS; Embassy at 2,343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 483-4,474; there are Austrian Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York; US - Ambassador Henry A. GRUNWALD; Embassy at Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna (mailing address is APO New York 9,108; telephone Õ43å (222) 31-55-11; there is a US Consulate General in Salzburg

Flag descriptionflag of Austria: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Austria - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: The economy depends primarily on manufacturing, which accounts for about 30% of GDP. Agriculture is of declining importance, contributing less than 4% to GDP and employing 8.5% of the labor force in 1986. In early 1987 the government introduced a policy of fiscal austerity and economic restructuring that should have long-term benefits for the economy. However, transitional difficulties soon became apparent as real growth slowed to 1%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 3.5% of GDP (including forestry; principal crops - grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry; 80-90% self-sufficient in food

Industries: foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1988)

Labor force:
3,200,000; 56.4%
services, 35.4%
industry and crafts, 8.1% agriculture and forestry; an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 138,700, about 4.3% of labor force (1984)

Labor force

Unemployment rate

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $31.6 billion; expenditures $37.5 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1987)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $27.2 billion (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products, chemicals
Partners: FRG 35%, Italy 10%, Eastern Europe 8%, Switzerland 7%, US 4%, OPEC 3%

Imports: $32.7 billion (c.i.f., 1987)
Commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
Partners: FRG 44%, Italy 9%, Eastern Europe 6%, Switzerland 5%, US 3%, USSR 2%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $12.4 billion (December 1987)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 12.873 (January 1989), 12.348 (1988), 12.643 (1987), 15.267 (1986), 20.690 (1985)


Austria - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Austria - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Austria - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.358 billion, 3.6% of central government budget (1988)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Austria - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 55 total, 54 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: 554 km crude oil; 2,611 km natural gas; 171 km refined products

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 446 km

Merchant marine: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 211,848 GRT/372,407 DWT; includes 25 cargo, 1 container, 5 bulk

Ports and terminals


Austria - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: South Tyrol question with Italy

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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