Botswana 1989Botswana

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Botswana - Introduction 1989
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Background: Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy closely tied to South Africa's is dominated by cattle raising and mining.

Botswana - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 4,013 km total; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest


Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver, natural gas
Land use

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 75% meadows and pastures; 2% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; very long boundary with South Africa

Botswana - People 1989
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Population: 1,232,183 (July 1989), growth rate 3.5% (1989)

Nationality: noun and adjective - Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: 95% Batswana; about 4% Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi; about 1% white

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Religions: 50% indigenous beliefs, 50% Christian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 46 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgrazing; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 63 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 62 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 24% in English, 35% in Tswana (est.), less than 1% secondary school graduates

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Botswana - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Botswana

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; note - in addition, there may now be 4 town councils named Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Pikwe

Dependent areas

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)

National holiday: Botswana Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 21

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government - President Quett K. J. MASIRE (since 13 July 1980; Vice President Peter S. MMUSI (since 3 January 1983)

Legislative branch: Army, Air Wing, Botswana Police

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador-Designate Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 404, 4,301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 244-4,990 or 4,991; US - Ambassador John F. KORDEK; Embassy at Botswana Road, Gaborone (mailing address is P. O. Box 90, Gaborone; telephone Õ267å 353,982 through 353,984

Flag descriptionflag of Botswana: light blue with a horizontal, white-edged black stripe in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Botswana - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for over 80% of the population, but produces only about 50% of food needs and contributes a small 5% to GDP. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to over 50% in 1988. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially not that of the agricultural sector, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. A scarce resource base limits diversification into labor-intensive industries.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for only 5% of GDP; 80% of population live on the land; subsistence farming predominates; cattle raising supports 50% of the population; must import large share of food needs

Industries: livestock processing; mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 16.8% (FY86)

Labor force: 400,000; 163,000 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1988 est.), 40,000 formal sector employees spend at least six to nine months per year as wage earners in South Africa (1980)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 25% (1987)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1,235 million; expenditures $1,080 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY90 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: diamonds 88%, copper and nickel 5%, meat 4%, cattle, animal products
Partners: Switzerland, US, UK, other EC-associated members of Southern African Customs Union

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles, textiles, petroleum products
Partners: Switzerland, US, UK, other EC-associated members of Southern African Customs Union

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $428 million (December 1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 1.9088 (December 1988), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987), 1.8678 (1986), 1.8882 (1985)

Botswana - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Botswana - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Botswana - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: NA

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Botswana - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 101 total, 90 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 24 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Botswana - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: short section of the boundary with Namibia is indefinite; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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