Liechtenstein 1989Liechtenstein

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Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein 

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Liechtenstein - Introduction 1989
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Background: The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I it was closely tied to Austria but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth.


Liechtenstein - Geography 1989
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Elevation

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential
Land use

Land use: 25% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 38% meadows and pastures; 19% forest and woodland; 18% other

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland


Liechtenstein - People 1989
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Population: 28,074 (July 1989), growth rate 0.8% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Liechtensteiner(s; adjective - Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups: 95% Alemannic, 5% Italian and other

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Religions: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Protestant, 10.2% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 13 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Liechtenstein - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde; Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Dependent areas

Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established

National holiday: St. Joseph's Day, 19 March

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: principality has its own civil and penal codes; lowest court is county court (Landgericht), which decides minor civil cases and summary criminal offenses; criminal court (Kriminalgericht) is for major crimes; the court of assizes is for misdemeanors; Superior Court (Obergericht) and Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) are courts of appeal for civil and criminal cases; an administrative court of appeal from government actions and the State Court determine the constitutionality of laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal adult

Executive branch: Chief of State - Prince FRANZ JOSEF II (since 30 March 1938; Heir Apparent HANS ADAM von und zu Liechtensten (son of Prince Franz Josef II, born 14 February 1945; on 26 August 1984 Prince Franz Josef transferred executive powers to his son; Head of Government - Prime Minister Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978; Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)

Legislative branch: unicameral legislature (Diet) with 15 deputies elected to four-year terms (dissolved 23 January 1989; hereditary prince, independent judiciary

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Council of Europe, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNICEF, UPU, WIPO; considering UN membership; has consultative status in the EC; under several post-World War I treaties Switzerland handles Liechtenstein's customs and represents the principality abroad on a diplomatic and consular level whenever requested to do so by the Liechtenstein Government

Diplomatic representation
In the us: in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy; US - the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag descriptionflag of Liechtenstein: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Liechtenstein - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light industry and some farming. Industry accounts for 54% of total employment, the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10 million annually and accounts for 10% of revenues. Low business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes, provide an additional 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of Switzerland in a customs union, and no national accounts data are available.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force:
12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from Switzerland and Austria; 54.4%
industry, trade, and building; 41.6%
services; 4.0% agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $171 million; expenditures $189 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $807 million
Commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
Partners: EC 40%, EFTA 26% (Switzerland 19%) (1986)

Imports: $NA
Commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.5590 (January 1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)


Liechtenstein - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Liechtenstein - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Liechtenstein - Military 1989
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Liechtenstein - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: none

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Liechtenstein - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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