Romania 1989Romania

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Romania - Introduction 1989
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Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989.

Romania - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
2,904 km total
Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, USSR 1,307 km, Yugoslavia 546 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; some hills and mountains


Natural resources: crude oil, timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt
Land use

Land use: 43% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 11% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans and western USSR

Romania - People 1989
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Population: 23,153,475 (July 1989), growth rate 0.5% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Romanian(s; adjective - Romanian

Ethnic groups: 89.1% Romanian; 7.8% Hungarian; 1.5% German; 1.6% Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Religions: 80% Romanian Orthodox; 6% Roman Catholic; 4% Calvinist, Lutheran, Jewish, Baptist

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 16 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: frequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides, air pollution in south

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 73 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Romania - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Romania

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu; Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Dependent areas

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947

National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 August (1944)

Constitution: 21 August 1965

Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory that increasingly reflects Romanian traditions; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18

Executive branch

Legislative branch: Romanian People's Army, Security Troops; Patriotic Guard, Air and Air Defense Forces, Romanian Navy

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CEMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Ion STOICHICI; Chancery at 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 232-4,747; US - Ambassador Roger KIRK; Embassy at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest (mailing address is APO New York 9,213; telephone Õ40å (0) 10-40-40

Flag descriptionflag of Romania: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a mountain landscape and a rising yellow sun below a red five-pointed star and the words REPUBLICA SOCIALISTA ROMANIA at the bottom; similar to the flag of Chad which does not have a national coat of arms in the center; also similar to the flag of Andorra which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Romania - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: Economic development, rigidly controlled by the government, is dominated by industrial activity. In 1986 industry generated over 60% of GNP and employed about 35% of the labor force. Persistent shortages of energy supplies, however, are affecting industrial output and the standard of living. Since the early 1980s the agricultural sector has suffered setbacks from periodic droughts, mismanagement, and shortages of inputs. Despite agricultural production shortfalls, the government has diverted food from domestic consumption to hard currency export markets. In 1982, Romania put into effect an austere import program and increased exports to Western countries. The resulting revenues have allowed the government to reduce its external debt from about $10 billion in 1981 to $4.9 billion at the end of 1987.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: corn, wheat, oilseed; livestock - cattle, hogs, sheep; consumer and food supplies weak; a net exporter

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1987)

Labor force:
10,690,000; 34%
industry, 28% agriculture, 38% other (1987)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $26 billion; expenditures $21.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $13.6 billion (1987)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $12.5 billion (f.o.b., 1986)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 34.7%, fuels, minerals and metals 24.7%, manufactured consumer goods 16.9%, agricultural materials and forestry products 11.9%, other 11.6% (1986)
Partners: USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4% (1987)

Imports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1986)
Commodities: fuels, minerals, and metals 51.0%, machinery and equipment 26.7%, agricultural and forestry products 11.0%, manufactured consumer goods 4.2% (1986)
Partners: Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40% (1987)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.9 billion (1987)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 14.555 (January 1989), 14.277 (1988), 14.557 (1987), 16.153 (1986), 17.141 (1985)

Romania - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Romania - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Romania - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 11.8 billion lei, 2.8% of total budget (1989; note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Romania - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 160 total, 160 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; over 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; fewer than 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 2,800 km crude oil; 1,429 km refined products; 6,400 km natural gas



Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Merchant marine: 282 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,313,320 GRT/5,134,335 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 184 cargo, 1 container, 1 rail-car carrier, 14 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 livestock carrier, 10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 69 bulk

Ports and terminals

Romania - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: Transylvania question with Hungary; Bessarabia question with USSR

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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