Senegal 1989Senegal

 Senegal | | | | | |
| | | :  |



Senegal - Introduction 1989
top of page

Background: Independent from France in 1960 Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. However the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks a southern separatist group sporadically has clashed with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.

Senegal - Geography 1989
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
2,640 km total
The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has strong southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast


Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use

Land use: 27% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 30% meadows and pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes 1% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: The Gambia is almost an enclave

Senegal - People 1989
top of page

Population: 7,506,197 (July 1989), growth rate 3.1% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Senegalese (sing. and pl.; adjective - Senegalese

Ethnic groups: 36% Wolof, 17% Fulani, 17% Serer, 9% Toucouleur, 9% Diola, 9% Mandingo, 1% European and Lebanese

Languages: French (official; Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

Religions: 92% Muslim, 6% indigenous beliefs, 2% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 46 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: lowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 96 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 54 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 10%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Senegal - Government 1989
top of page

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; on 1 February 1982, Senegal and The Gambia formed a loose confederation named Senegambia that calls for the eventual integration of their armed forces and economic cooperation

Capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region; Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France; Senegambian confederation agreement formally signed with The Gambia on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Constitution: 3 March 1963, last revised in 1984

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court, which also audits the government's accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal adult

Executive branch

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, APC, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB - Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Ibra Deguene KA; Chancery at 2,112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 234-0540 or 0541; US - Ambassador George E. MOOSE; Embassy on Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar (mailing address is B. P. 49, Dakar; telephone Õ221å 21-42-96

Flag descriptionflag of Senegal: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Senegal - Economy 1989
top of page

Economy overview: The agricultural sector accounts for about 20% of GDP and provides employment for about 75% of the labor force. About 40% of the total cultivated land is used to grow peanuts, an important export crop. The principal economic resource is fishing, which brought in about $200 million or about 25% of total foreign exchange earnings in 1987. Mining is dominated by the extraction of phosphate, but production has faltered because of reduced worldwide demand for fertilizers in recent years. Over the past 10 years tourism has become increasingly more important to the economy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: peanuts (primary cash crop), millet, sorghum, manioc, maize, rice, livestock; deficit production of food

Industries: fishing, agricultural processing, phosphate mining, petroleum refining, building materials

Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (1986)

Labor force: 2,509,000; 77% subsistence agricultural workers; 175,000 wage earners - 40% private sector, 60% government and parapublic; 52% of population of working age (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $443 million; expenditures $474 million; including capital expenditures of $31 million (FY86)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $749 million (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: manufactures 30%, fish products 27%, peanuts 11%, petroleum products 11%, phosphates 10%
Partners: US 15%, France, other EC, Ivory Coast, India

Imports: $983 million (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: semimanufactures 33%, food 26%, durable consumer goods 17%, petroleum 14%, capital goods 14%
Partners: US 8%, France, other EC, Nigeria, Algeria, China, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.7 billion (1987)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 312.52 (January 1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Senegal - Energy 1989
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Senegal - Communication 1989
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Senegal - Military 1989
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $13.37 billion, 35.5% of central government budget (FY88)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Senegal - Transportation 1989
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 25 total, 21 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 970 km

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 9,263 GRT/15,167 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 bulk

Ports and terminals

Senegal - Transnational issues 1989
top of page

Disputes international: short section of the boundary with The Gambia is indefinite

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Iberostar Hotels

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it