Svalbard 1989Svalbard

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Svalbard
Svalbard 

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Svalbard - Introduction 1989
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Background: First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.


Svalbard - Geography 1989
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries

Coastline

Maritime claims

Climate

Terrain

Elevation

Natural resources
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)


Svalbard - People 1989
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Population: 3,942 (July 1989), growth rate 0.0% (1989; about one-third of the population resides in the Norwegian areas (Longyearbyen and Svea on Vestspitsbergen) and two-thirds in the Soviet areas (Barentsburg and Pyramiden on Vestspitsbergen; about 9 persons live at the Polish research station

Nationality

Ethnic groups: 64% Russian, 35% Norwegian, 1% other (1981)

Languages: Russian, Norwegian

Religions

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: NA births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: NA deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Svalbard - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: none

Government type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway

Capital: Longyearbyen

Administrative divisions

Dependent areas

Independence

National holiday

Constitution

Legal system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage

Executive branch: Chief of State King OLAV V (since 21 September 1957; Head of Government Governor Leif ELDRING (since NA)

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Svalbard: the flag of Norway is used

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Svalbard - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Soviet. Each company mines about half a million tons of coal annually. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products

Industries

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports

Imports

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.6628 (January 1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947 (1986), 8.5972 (1985)


Svalbard - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Svalbard - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Svalbard - Military 1989
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Svalbard - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Svalbard - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Turbopass


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