Statistical information Chad 1989Chad

Map of Chad | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Chad in the World
Chad in the World


Chad - Introduction 1989
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Background: Chad endured decades of civil warfare among ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya.

Chad - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 5,968 km total; Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south


Natural resources: small quantities of crude oil (unexploited but exploration beginning), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 36% meadows and pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 51% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel geoad0.gif" border="0" geoad1

Chad - People 1989
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Population: 4,949,132 (July 1989), growth rate 2.3% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Chadian(s; adjective - Chadian

Ethnic groups: some 200 distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, and Maba) in the north and center and non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moudang, Moussei, Massa) in the south; some 150,000 nonindigenous, of whom 1,000 are French

Languages: French and Arabic (official; Sara and Sango in south; more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken

Religions: 44% Muslim, 33% Christian, 23% indigenous beliefs, animism

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 42 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 22 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 139 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 38 years male, 40 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 5.3 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 17% (est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Chad - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture; Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day (founding of the third republic), 7 June (1982)

Constitution: 14 April 1962 (currently suspended; Fundamental Act of the Republic proclaimed 18 October 1982 currently serves as the basis for government with decrees promulgated by the President

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; National Assembly dissolved in April 1975; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal over age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government - President Hissein HABRE (since 19 June 1982)

Legislative branch: Army, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, CEAO, Conference of East and Central African States, EAMA, ECA, EC (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB - Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Mahamat Ali ADOUM; Chancery at 2002 R Steet NW, Washington DC 20,009; telephone (202) 462-4,009; US - Ambassador Robert L. PUGH; Embassy at Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena (mailing address is B. P. 413, N'Djamena; telephone Õ235å (51) 32-69 or 35-13, 28-62, 23-29, 32-29, 30-94, 28-47

Flag descriptionflag of Chad: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Andorra which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; also similar to the flag of Romania which has a national coat of arms featuring a mountain landscape centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Chad - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: The climate, geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural resources potential make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is slowly recovering from the ravaging effects of prolonged civil war, conflict with Libya, drought, and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level, with cotton, the major cash crop, accounting for 43% of exports. Over 80% of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing. Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is still highly dependent on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from shortages.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: commercial - cotton, gum arabic, livestock, peanuts, fish; food crops - millet, sorghum, rice, sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, dates

Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate)

Industrial production growth rate: - 7.0% (1986)

Labor force: NA; 85% agriculture (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $59.3 million; expenditures $84.7 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $98.6 million (f.o.b., 1986)
Commodities: cotton 43%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
Partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Imports: $206 million (c.i.f., 1986)
Commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%
Partners: US, France

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $255 million (December 1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 312.52 (January 1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Chad - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Chad - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Chad - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $34.3 million, 40.5% of total budget (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Chad - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 72 total, 56 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Chad - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: Libya claims and occupies Aozou Strip in far north; exact locations of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have not been determined, so the boundary has not been demarcated and border incidents have resulted

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Crystal Travel

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