Statistical information Iran 1989Iran

Map of Iran | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Iran in the World
Iran in the World

Iran - Introduction 1989
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Background: Known as Persia until 1935 Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces subsequently crushed westernizing liberal elements. Militant Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88 Iran fought a bloody indecisive war with Iraq over disputed territory. The key current issue is how rapidly the country should open up to the modernizing influences of the outside world.

Iran - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
5,492 km total
Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km

Coastline: 3,180 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specific
Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman
Medianline boundaries in the Persian Gulf Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Land use

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Iran - People 1989
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Population: 53,866,523 (July 1989), growth rate 3.4% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Iranian(s; adjective - Iranian

Ethnic groups: 63% ethnic Persian, 18% Turkic, 13% other Iranian, 3% Kurdish, 3% Arab and other Semitic

Languages: Farsi, Turki, Kurdish, Arabic, English, French

Religions: 93% Shia Muslim; 5% Sunni Muslim; 2% Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Bahai

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 44 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 113 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 57 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 48%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Iran - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran

Government type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan; Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979

Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal over age 15

Executive branch: Chief of State - President Ali Akbar RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989; Head of Government - Prime Minister Mir Hosein MUSAVI-KHAMENEI (since 31 October 1981)

Legislative branch: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and naval forces), Gendarmerie

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, Economic Cooperation Organization, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, International Chamber of Commerce, IPU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, WHO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none; protecting power in the US is Algeria - Iranian Interests Section, 2,209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,007; telephone (202) 965-4,990; US - protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag descriptionflag of Iran: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Iran - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: Since the 1979 revolution, banks, the petroleum industry, transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized. War-related disruptions, massive corruption, mismanagement, and ideological rigidities have kept economic activities below prerevolutionary levels. Oil accounts for 90% of export revenues. In 1986 the sharp drop in oil prices further depressed the economy. A combination of war damage and low oil prices brought a 2% drop in GNP in 1988. Heating oil and gasoline are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the war, land reform, and shortages of equipment and materials. The government has introduced austerity import measures that have had the hardest impact on the industrial sector, but the measures have also been successful in lowering foreign debt from $10 billion in 1980 to about $4 billion at the end of 1988.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: wheat, barley, rice, sugar beets, cotton, dates, raisins, tea, tobacco, sheep, goats; an illegal producer of opium poppy for the international drug trade

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 15,400,000; 33% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (1988)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $55.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (FY88 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $9.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
Partners: Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG

Imports: $11.0 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products
Partners: FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.3 billion, medium and long-term debt (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 69.571 (January 1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760 (1986), 91.052 (1985)

Iran - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Iran - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Iran - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: NA

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Iran - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 170 total, 144 usable; 80 with permanent-surface runways; 16 with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 67 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural gas, 3,300 km



Waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war

Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,752,795 GRT/8,895,475 DWT; includes 35 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 35 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 49 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Iran - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: Iran began formal UN peace negotiations with Iraq in August 1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980 - troop withdrawal, freedom of navigation, sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway and prisoner-of-war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; occupies three islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb; periodic disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Baluch question with Afghanistan and Pakistan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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