Statistical information Poland 1989Poland

Map of Poland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Poland in the World
Poland in the World

Poland - Introduction 1989
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Background: Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite country following the war but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of an independent trade union 'Solidarity' that over time became a political force.

Poland - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
2,980 km total
Czechoslovakia 1,309 km, GDR 456 km, USSR 1,215 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain, mountains along southern border


Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt
Land use

Land use: 48% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 13% meadows and pastures; 29% forest and woodland; 9% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

Poland - People 1989
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Population: 38,169,841 (July 1989), growth rate 0.5% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Pole(s; adjective - Polish

Ethnic groups: 98.7% Polish, 0.6% Ukrainian, 0.5% Byelorussian, less than 0.05% Jewish

Languages: Polish

Religions: 95% Roman Catholic (about 75% practicing), 5% Uniate, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, and other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 16 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: plain crossed by a few north-flowing, meandering streams; severe air and water pollution in south

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 74 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Poland - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Polish People's Republic; abbreviated PPR

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo; Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko-Biala, Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow Wielkopolski, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 22 July (1952)

Constitution: 22 July 1952

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and Communist legal theory; court system parallels administrative divisions with Supreme Court, composed of 104 justices, at apex; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State Head of Government President Gen. Wojciech JARUZELSKI, Chairman of Council of State (President since 19 July 1989, Chairman since November 1985; Head of Government Premier Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI (since 24 August 1989)

Legislative branch: Ground Forces, National Air Defense Forces, Air Force Command, Navy

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICES, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, Indochina Truce Commission, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, Korea Truce Commission, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, Warsaw Pact, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Jan KINAST; Chancery at 2,640 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20,009; telephone (202) 234-3,800 through 3,802; there are Polish Consulates General in Chicago and New York; US - Ambassador John R. DAVIS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw (mailing address is APO New York 9,213; telephone Õ48å 283,041 through 283,049; there is a US Consulate General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan

Flag descriptionflag of Poland: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Poland - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: The economy, except for the agricultural sector, is based on the Soviet model of state ownership of the country's productive assets. About 75% of agricultural production comes from the private sector and the rest from state farms. The economy presents a picture of moderate but slowing growth against a background of underlying weaknesses in recovering to the production levels of the 1970s. GNP increased between 3% and 6% annually during the period 1983-1986, but was only 2.5% and 2.1% in 1987 and 1988, respectively. The inflation rate, after falling sharply from the 1982 peak of 100% to 22% in 1986, rose to an annual rate of 74% in early 1989. Shortages of consumer goods and some food items worsened in 1988-89. Agricultural products and coal remain the biggest hard currency earners, but manufactures are increasing in importance. Poland continues to have difficulty in servicing a large hard currency debt that amounted to $38.9 billion at the end of 1988. Consequently, it is severely limited in its ability to import much needed hard currency goods.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: grain, sugar beets, oilseed, potatoes, exporter of livestock products and sugar; importer of grains; self-sufficient for minimum requirements

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 5.4% (1988)

Labor force:
18,630,000 (1987; 44%
industry and commerce, 30% agriculture, 11%
services, 8% government (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: negligible

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $23 billion; expenditures $24 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $26.0 billion (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 49%, fuels, minerals, and metals 23%, manufactured consumer goods 13%, agricultural and forestry products 10%
Partners: USSR 25%, FRG 11%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1987)

Imports: $24.3 billion (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 33%, fuels, minerals, and metals 38%, manufactured consumer goods 9%, agricultural and forestry products 13%
Partners: USSR 27%, FRG 12%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1987)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $38.9 billion (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 498.74 (December 1989), 430.55 (1988), 265.08 (1987), 175.29 (1986), 147.14 (1985)

Poland - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Poland - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Poland - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 954 billion zlotych, NA% of total budget (1989; note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Poland - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 140 total, 140 usable; 80 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; fewer than 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; fewer than 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 4,500 km for natural gas; 1,986 km for crude oil; 360 km for refined products (1987)



Waterways: 3,989 km navigable rivers and canals (1985)

Merchant marine: 240 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,996,876 GRT/4,225,943 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo/training, 96 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 105 bulk

Ports and terminals

Poland - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: marine boundary with GDR

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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