Statistical information Singapore 1989Singapore

Map of Singapore | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Singapore in the World
Singapore in the World

Volotea Air

Singapore - Introduction 1989
top of page

Background: Founded as a British trading colony in 1819 Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963 but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP above that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

Singapore - Geography 1989
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve


Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use

Land use: 4% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 84% other

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes geoad0.gif" border="0" geoad1

Singapore - People 1989
top of page

Population: 2,674,362 (July 1989), growth rate 1.1% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Singaporean(s), adjective - Singapore

Ethnic groups: 76.4% Chinese, 14.9% Malay, 6.4% Indian, 2.3% other

Languages: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (official; Malay (national)

Religions: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays nearly all Muslim (minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Taoists, Confucianists)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 16 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: mostly urban and industrialized

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 86.8% (1987)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Singapore - Government 1989
top of page

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

Government type: republic within Commonwealth

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 20

Executive branch

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Army Reserve, Singapore Armed Forces

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Tommy T. B. KOH; Chancery at 1824 R Street NW, Washington DC 20,009; telephone (202) 667-7,555; US - Ambassador Daryl ARNOLD; Embassy at 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617 (mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96,699; telephone Õ65å 338-0251

Flag descriptionflag of Singapore: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Singapore - Economy 1989
top of page

Economy overview: Singapore has an open economy with strong service and manufacturing sectors and an excellent international trading link derived from its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the economy expanded rapidly, achieving an average annual growth rate of 9%. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia. In 1985 the economy registered its first drop in 20 years and achieved less than a 2% increase in 1986. Estimates for 1988 suggest a 10.9% growth rate based on rising demand for Singapore's products in OECD countries, a strong Japanese yen, and improved competitiveness of domestic manufactures. In 1988 the inflation rate was insignificant at 1.5%, and unemployment dropped below 4%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: occupies a position of minor importance in the economy; self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major crops - rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: 17% (1987)

Labor force:
1,250,000; 29%
services, 25.5% manufacturing, 22.4% trade, 9.7% transport and communication, 7.3% construction, 0.8% agriculture and fishing

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.3% (1988 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $5.8 billion; expenditures $6.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.4 billion (FY88)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $39 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
Commodities: includes transshipments to Malaysia - petroleum products, rubber, electronics, manufactured goods
Partners: US 24%, Malaysia 13%, Japan 9%, Hong Kong 6%, Thailand 6%, Australia 3%, FRG 3%

Imports: $42.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.)
Commodities: includes transshipments from Malaysia - capital equipment, petroleum, chemicals, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
Partners: Japan 22%, US 16%, Malaysia 14%, EC 12%, Kuwait 1%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.2 billion (December 1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US$1 - 1.9401 (January 1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985)

Singapore - Energy 1989
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Singapore - Communication 1989
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Singapore - Military 1989
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.3 billion, 21.0% of central government budget (FY88)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Singapore - Transportation 1989
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine: 410 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,099,937 GRT/11,570,465 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 132 cargo, 43 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo, 14 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 93 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 7 chemical tanker, 5 combination ore/oil, 20 liquefied gas, 74 bulk, 5 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Singapore - Transnational issues 1989
top of page

Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it