Statistical information Tonga 1989Tonga

Map of Tonga | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Tonga in the World
Tonga in the World

Tonga - Introduction 1989
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Background: Deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

Tonga - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base


Natural resources: fish, fertile soil
Land use

Land use: 25% arable land; 55% permanent crops; 6% meadows and pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 2% other

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Tonga - People 1989
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Population: 100,465 (July 1989), growth rate 0.8% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Tongan(s; adjective - Tongan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

Languages: Tongan, English

Religions: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 27 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: - 14 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited; subject to cyclones (October to April; deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 90-95%; compulsory education for children ages 6 to 14

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Tonga - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga

Government type: constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth

Capital: Nukualofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Haapai, Tongatapu, Vavau

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21

Executive branch

Legislative branch: Land Force, Maritime Force

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, Commonwealth, FAO, ESCAP, GATT (de facto), IFAD, ITU, South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Siaosi Taimani 'AHO resides in London; US - the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga and makes periodic visits

Flag descriptionflag of Tonga: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Tonga - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 10% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on external aid and remittances to sustain its trade deficit.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Industries: tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 15% (FY86)

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $35.6 million; expenditures $36 million, including capital expenditures of $16 million (FY88)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.9 million (f.o.b., FY87)
Commodities: coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro, vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish
Partners: NZ 54%, Australia 30%, US 8%, Fiji 5%

Imports: $46.2 million (c.i.f., FY87)
Commodities: food products, beverages and tobacco, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, building materials
Partners: NZ 39%, Australia 25%, Japan 9%, US 6%, EC 5%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $31.8 million (1987)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.419 (April 1987), NA (1987), 1.504 (1986), 1.469 (1985)

Tonga - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Tonga - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Tonga - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: NA

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Tonga - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 31,255 GRT/41,284 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 container

Ports and terminals

Tonga - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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