Statistical information Venezuela 1989Venezuela

Map of Venezuela | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Venezuela in the World
Venezuela in the World

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Venezuela - Introduction 1989
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Background: Venezuela was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border increasing internal drug consumption overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations and irresponsible mining operations which are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.

Venezuela - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
4,993 km total
Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 15 nm
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos; Guyana highlands in southeast


Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Land use

Land use: 3% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures; 39% forest and woodland; 37% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

Venezuela - People 1989
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Population: 19,263,376 (July 1989), growth rate 2.5% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Venezuelan(s; adjective - Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: 67% mestizo, 21% white, 10% black, 2% Indian

Languages: Spanish (official; Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000 Amerindians in the remote interior

Religions: 96% nominally Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 30 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; Angel Falls is world's highest waterfall; unique rock massifs known as tepuis in the state of Bolivar

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 73 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 85.6%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Venezuela - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Venezuela

Government type: republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 20 states (estados, singular - estado), 2 territories* (territorios, singular - territorio), 1 federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal; Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro*, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note - the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation Court only; dual state and federal court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18, though poorly enforced

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government President Carlos Andres PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)

Legislative branch: Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (Navy, Marines, Coast Guard), Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National Guard)

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Andean Pact, AIOEC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB - Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC - International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, WFTU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Valentin HERNANDEZ; Chancery at 2,445 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 797-3,800; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico; US - Ambassador Otto J. REICH; Embassy at Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address is P. O. Box 62,291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO Miami 34,037; telephone Õ58å (2) 284-6,111 or 7,111; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

Flag descriptionflag of Venezuela: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Venezuela - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted for 17% of GDP, 52% of central government revenues, and 87% of export earnings in 1987. The same year, real GDP achieved a 3.0% increase.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cereals, fruits, sugar, coffee, rice; an illegal producer of small quantities of coca and cannabis for the international drug trade

Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7%, excluding oil (1987)

Labor force:
5,800,000; 56%
services, 28%
industry, 16% agriculture (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.0% (1988)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $12.9 billion; expenditures $13.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (1987)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: petroleum 81%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic manufactures
Partners: US 50%, FRG 4.7, Japan 3.1%, Netherlands 2.6% (1987)

Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment
Partners: US 44%, FRG 8.5%, Japan 6%, Italy 5%, Brazil 4.4% (1987)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $32.0 billion, medium and long term (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 14.5000 (fixed rate since 1986), 8.0333 (1986), 7.5000 (1985; 1989 fixed official rates - 14.5000 for 84% of traded goods and 7.5000 for 8% of certain other traded goods; in addition there is a free-market rate of 39.3 covering a further 8% of traded goods

Venezuela - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Venezuela - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Venezuela - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: NA

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Venezuela - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 273 total, 243 usable; 110 with permanent-surface runways; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 84 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km refined products; 4,010 km natural gas



Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels

Merchant marine: 72 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 853,078 GRT/1,352,660 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 32 cargo, 1 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 10 bulk, 1 vehicle carrier, 2 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Venezuela - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: claims Essequibo area of Guyana; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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