Statistical information Vietnam 1989Vietnam

Map of Vietnam | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Vietnam - Introduction 1989
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Background: France occupied all of Vietnam by 1884. Independence was declared after World War II but the French continued to rule until 1954 when they were defeated by communist forces under HO Chi Minh who took control of the north. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later North Vietnamese forces overran the south. Economic reconstruction of the reunited country has proven difficult as aging Communist Party leaders have only grudgingly initiated reforms necessary for a free market.

Vietnam - Geography 1989
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries:
3,818 km total
Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest


Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil deposits, forests
Land use

Land use: 22% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 35% other; includes 5% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Vietnam - People 1989
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Population: 66,820,544 (July 1989), growth rate 2.5% (1989)

Nationality: noun - Vietnamese (sing. and pl.; adjective - Vietnamese

Ethnic groups: 85-90% predominantly Vietnamese; 3% Chinese; ethnic minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other mountain tribes

Languages: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Religions: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic, Protestant

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 33 births/1000 population (1989)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1989)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1000 population (1989)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding geoad0.gif" border="0" geoad1

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 51 deaths/1000 live births (1989)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 66 years female (1989)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1989)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 78%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Vietnam - Government 1989
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Country name: conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thanh pho, singular and plural; An Giang, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Tri Thien, Cao Bang, Cuu Long, Dac Lac, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai-Cong Tum, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam Ninh, Ha Noi*, Ha Son Binh, Ha Tuyen, Hau Giang, Hoang Lien Son, Ho Chi Minh*, Kien Giang, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Long An, Minh Hai, Nghe Tinh, Nghia Binh, Phu Khanh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ninh, Song Be, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thuan Hai, Tien Giang, Vinh Pu, Vung Tau-Con Dao; note - diacritical marks are not included

Dependent areas

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Constitution: 18 December 1980

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal over age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State Chairman of the Council of State Vo Chi CONG (since 18 June 1987; Head of Government Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier) Do MUOI (since 22 June 1988)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, CEMA, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee, NAM, UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none

Flag descriptionflag of Vietnam: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Vietnam - Economy 1989
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Economy overview: The economy is primarily agricultural, employing about 65% of the labor force and accounting for almost 50% of GDP. Rice is the staple crop, although significant amounts of maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes are also grown. Most of the mineral resources are located in the north, including coal which is an important export item. The economy is heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received assistance from Communist and non-Communist countries and from international organizations. Triggered by abortive wage and price controls in mid-1985, inflation soared to about 500% in 1986 and remained in the 300% range in 1987.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: rice, rubber, fruits and vegetables; some corn, manioc, sugarcane; major food imports - wheat, corn, dairy products

Industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 8.0% (1987)

Labor force: 32,900,000 civilians (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (mid-1988 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $3.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $528 million (1987 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $880 million (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: agricultural and handicraft products, coal, minerals, ores
Partners: USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

Imports: $2.19 billion (c.i.f., 1987)
Commodities: petroleum, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain
Partners: USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $8.6 billion (1987)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1 - 2,800 (December 1988)

Vietnam - Energy 1989
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Vietnam - Communication 1989
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Vietnam - Military 1989
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, 40-50% of central government budget (1987 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Vietnam - Transportation 1989
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 150 km, refined products



Waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft

Merchant marine: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 285,837 GRT/424,289 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 52 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 7 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 bulk; note - Vietnam owns 7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,230 GRT/86,461 DWT under the registry of Panama

Ports and terminals

Vietnam - Transnational issues 1989
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Disputes international: three sections of the boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; occupied Cambodia on 25 December 1978; sporadic border clashes with China; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan; maritime boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Undercover Tourist

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