Chile 1990Chile

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Chile
Chile 

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Chile - Introduction 1990
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Background: A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973 by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET which ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990.


Chile - Geography 1990
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: 6,171 km total; Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

Elevation

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum
Land use

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 16% meadows and pastures; 21% forest and woodland; 56% other; includes 2% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)


Chile - People 1990
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Population: 13,082,842 (July 1990), growth rate 1.6% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Chilean(s; adjective--Chilean

Ethnic groups: 95% European and European-Indian, 3% Indian, 2% other

Languages: Spanish

Religions: 89% Roman Catholic, 11% Protestant, and small Jewish population

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 21 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism, tsunami; Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 94%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Chile - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chile

Government type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular--region; Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Patricio AYLWIN (since 11 March 1990)

Legislative branch: Army of the Nation, National Navy, Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CIPEC, ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Octavio ERRAZURIZ; Chancery at 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,036; telephone (202) 785-1746; there are Chilean Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco; US--Ambassador Charles A. GILLESPIE, Jr.; Embassy at Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago (mailing address is APO Miami 34,033; telephone p56o (2) 710,133 or 710,190, 710,326, 710,375

Flag descriptionflag of Chile: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Chile - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: In 1989 the economy grew at the rate of 9.9%, reflecting substantial growth in industry, agriculture, and construction. Copper accounts for nearly 50% of export revenues; Chile's economic well-being thus remains highly dependent on international copper prices. Unemployment and inflation rates have declined from their peaks in 1982 to 5.3% and 21.4%, respectively, in 1989. The major long-term economic problem is how to sustain growth in the face of political uncertainties.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 8% of GDP (including fishing and forestry; major exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops--wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock products--beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1986 fish catch of 5.6 million metric tons net agricultural importer

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1989)

Labor force:
3,840,000; 38.6%
services (including 12% government), 31.3%
industry and commerce; 15.9% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 8.7% mining; 4.4% construction (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.3% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.6 billion (1986)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: copper 48%, industrial products 33%, molybdenum, iron ore, wood pulp, fishmeal, fruits
Partners: EC 34%, US 22%, Japan 10%, Brazil 7%

Imports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: petroleum, wheat, capital goods, spare parts, raw materials
Partners: EC 23%, US 20%, Japan 10%, Brazil 9%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $16.3 billion (December 1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1--296.68 (January 1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988), 219.54 (1987), 193.02 (1986), 161.08 (1985)


Chile - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Chile - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Chile - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 4.0% of GDP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Chile - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 392 total, 352 usable; 49 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 57 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined products, 785 km; natural gas, 320 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 725 km

Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 498,354 GRT/804,809 DWT; includes 13 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 10 bulk; note--in addition, 1 naval tanker and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially

Ports and terminals


Chile - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine claim

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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