Japan 1990Japan

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Japan
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Japan - Introduction 1990
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Background: While retaining its time-honored culture Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its devastating defeat in World War II Japan recovered to become the second most powerful economy in the world and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians bureaucrats and business executives.


Japan - Geography 1990
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Elevation

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use

Land use: 13% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 67% forest and woodland; 18% other; includes 9% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location in northeast Asia


Japan - People 1990
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Population: 123,642,461 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Japanese (sing., pl.; adjective--Japanese

Ethnic groups: 99.4% Japanese, 0.6% other (mostly Korean)

Languages: Japanese

Religions: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites; about 16% belong to other faiths, including 0.8% Christian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 11 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Japan - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: none

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures (fuken, singular and plural; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Dependent areas

Independence: 660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu; 3 May 1947, constitutional monarchy established

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Executive branch: Chief of State--Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989; Head of Government--Prime Minister Toshiki KAIFU (since 9 August 1989)

Legislative branch: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (air force), Maritime Safety Agency (coast guard)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Nobuo MATSUNAGA; Chancery at 2,520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 939-6,700; there are Japanese Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland (Oregon), and a Consulate in Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands; US--Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-1, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96,503; telephone p81o (3) 224-5,000; there are US Consulates General in Naha, Osaka-Kobe, and Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka

Flag descriptionflag of Japan: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Japan - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Although Japan has few natural resources, since 1971 it has become the world's third-largest industrial economy, ranking behind only the US and the USSR. Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance rapidly, notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. Self-sufficent in rice, Japan must import 50% of its requirements for other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the total global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular; a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1989 strong investment and consumption spending helped maintain growth at nearly 5%. Inflation remains low at 2.1% despite high oil prices and a somewhat weaker yen. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus, $60 billion in 1989, which supports extensive investment in foreign properties.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 3% of GNP; highly subsidized and protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops--rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 11.8 million metric tons in 1987

Industries: metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic, textiles, chemicals, automobiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 9.0% (1989)

Labor force: 63,330,000; 54% trade and services; 33% manufacturing, mining, and construction; 7% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 3% government (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.3% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $392 billion; expenditures $464 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $270 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: manufactures 97% (including machinery 38%, motor vehicles 17%, consumer electronics 10%)
Partners: US 34%, Southeast Asia 22%, Western Europe 21%, Communist countries 5%, Middle East 5%

Imports: $210 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodities: manufactures 42%, fossil fuels 30%, foodstuffs 15%, nonfuel raw materials 13%
Partners: Southeast Asia 23%, US 23%, Middle East 15%, Western Europe 16%, Communist countries 7%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1--145.09 (January 1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985)


Japan - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Japan - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Japan - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1.0% of GNP at market prices (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Japan - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 165 total, 156 usable; 128 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 27 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil, 84 km; refined products, 322 km; natural gas, 1,800 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Merchant marine: 1,088 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,597,688 GRT/36,655,266 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 57 short-sea passenger, 4 passenger cargo, 108 cargo, 44 container, 27 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 135 refrigerated cargo, 117 vehicle carrier, 237 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 21 chemical tanker, 42 liquefied gas, 12 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 272 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 multifunction large-load carrier

Ports and terminals


Japan - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: Habomai Islands, Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by Japan; Kuril Islands administered by Soviet Union; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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