Mongolia 1990Mongolia

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Mongolia
Mongolia 

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Mongolia - Introduction 1990
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Background: Long a province of China Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924.


Mongolia - Geography 1990
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: 8,114 km total; China 4,673 km, USSR 3,441 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold
Land use

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 79% meadows and pastures; 10% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Soviet Union


Mongolia - People 1990
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Population: 2,187,275 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mongolian(s; adjective--Mongolian

Ethnic groups: 90% Mongol, 4% Kazakh, 2% Chinese, 2% Russian, 2% other

Languages: Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor languages include Turkic, Russian, and Chinese

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, about 4% Muslim, limited religious activity because of Communist regime

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 35 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: harsh and rugged

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 80% (est.), 100% claimed (1985)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mongolia - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Mongolian People's Republic; abbreviated MPR

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular--aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular--hot; Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Dependent areas

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China; formerly Outer Mongolia)

National holiday: People's Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 6 July 1960

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 21 March 1990; Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sharabyn GUNGAADORJ (since 21 March 1990;

Legislative branch: Mongolian People's Army, Air Force (negligible)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CEMA, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, ILO, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Gendengiin NYAMDOO; US--Ambassador Richard L. WILLIAMS

Flag descriptionflag of Mongolia: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is a five-pointed star above the national emblem (soyombo--a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representations for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mongolia - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock--Mongolia has the highest number of livestock per person in the world. In recent years extensive mineral resources have been developed with Soviet support. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 90% of exports and provides livelihood for about 50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (sheep, goats, horses; crops--wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

Industries: processing of animal products, building materials, food and beverage, mining (particularly coal)

Industrial production growth rate: 10.9% (1985)

Labor force: NA, but primarily agricultural; over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.19 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.9 billion (1987 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $388 million (f.o.b., 1985)
Commodities: livestock, animal products, wool, hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals
Partners: nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., 1985)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Partners: nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1--3.355 (1986-1988), 3.600 (1985)


Mongolia - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mongolia - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mongolia - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: NA

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mongolia - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 80 total, 30 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; fewer than 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1986)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Mongolia - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Iberia


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