Panama 1990Panama

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Panama
Panama 

World Nomads


Panama - Introduction 1990
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Background: With US backing Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. On 7 September 1977 an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by 1999. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the intervening years. With US help dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989.


Panama - Geography 1990
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: 555 km total; Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea:200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Elevation

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp
Land use

Land use: 6% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 15% meadows and pastures; 54% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean


Panama - People 1990
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Population: 2,425,400 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Panamanian(s; adjective--Panamanian

Ethnic groups: 70% mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry), 14% West Indian, 10% white, 6% Indian

Languages: Spanish (official; 14% speak English as native tongue; many Panamanians bilingual

Religions: over 93% Roman Catholic, 6% Protestant

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 26 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: dense tropical forest in east and northwest

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 90%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Panama - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Panama

Government type: centralized republic

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca; Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Guillermo ENDARA (since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989; First Vice President Ricardo Arias CALDERON (since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989; Second Vice President Guillermo FORD (since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989)

Legislative branch: the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) ceased to exist as a military institution shortly after the United States invaded Panama on 20 December 1989; President Endara is attempting to restructure the forces, with more civilian control, under the new name of Panamanian Public Forces (PPF)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica) currently being reorganized

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Eduardo VALLARINO; Chancery at 2,862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 483-1407; the status of the Consulates General and Consulates has not yet been determined; US--Ambassador Deane R. HINTON; Embassy at Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6,959, Panama City 5 (mailing address is Box E, APO Miami 34,002; telephone p507o 27-1777

Flag descriptionflag of Panama: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white with a blue five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Panama - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The GDP contracted an estimated 7.5% in 1989, following a drop of 20% in 1988. Political instability, lack of credit, and the erosion of business confidence prompted declines of 20-70% in the financial, agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, and construction sectors between 1987 and 1989. Transits through the Panama Canal were off slightly, as were toll revenues. Unemployment remained about 23% during 1989. Imports of foodstuffs and crude oil increased during 1989, but capital goods imports continued their slide. Exports were widely promoted by Noriega trade delegations, but sales abroad remained stagnant.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 10% of GDP (1989 est.), 26% of labor force (1987; crops--bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock; fishing; importer of food grain, vegetables, milk products

Industries: manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar mills, paper products

Industrial production growth rate: - 4.1% (1989 est.)

Labor force: 770,472 (1987; 27.9% government and community services; 26.2% agriculture, hunting, and fishing; 16% commerce, restaurants, and hotels; 10.5% manufacturing and mining; 5.3% construction; 5.3% transportation and communications; 4.2% finance, insurance, and real estate; 2.4% Canal Zone; shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 23% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $598 million; expenditures $750 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $220 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: bananas 40%, shrimp 27%, coffee 4%, sugar, petroleum products
Partners: US 90%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1989 est.)

Imports: $830 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs 16%, capital goods 9%, crude oil 16%, consumer goods, chemicals
Partners: US 35%, Central America and Caribbean, EC, Mexico, Venezuela (1989 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.2 billion (November 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1--1.000 (fixed rate)


Panama - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Panama - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Panama - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 2.0% of GDP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Panama - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 123 total, 112 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil, 130 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal

Merchant marine: 3,187 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,502,092 GRT/72,961,250 DWT; includes 34 passenger, 22 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger-cargo, 1,087 cargo, 179 refrigerated cargo, 186 container, 71 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 136 vehicle carrier, 7 livestock carrier, 9 multifunction large-load carrier, 315 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 184 chemical tanker, 30 combination ore/oil, 91 liquefied gas, 8 specialized tanker, 767 bulk, 58 combination bulk; note--all but 5 are foreign owned and operated; the top 4 foreign owners are Japan 41%, Greece 9%, Hong Kong 9%, and the US 7% (China owns at least 144 ships, Yugoslavia 12, Cuba 6, and Vietnam 9)

Ports and terminals


Panama - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs




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