Statistical information Argentina 1990Argentina

Map of Argentina | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Argentina in the World
Argentina in the World


Argentina - Introduction 1990
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Background: A part of the Spanish empire until independence in 1816, Argentina subsequently experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. Meantime, thanks to rich natural resources and foreign investment, a modern agriculture and a diversified industry were gradually developed. After World War II, a long period of Peronist dictatorship was followed by rule by a military junta. Democratic elections finally came in 1983, but both the political and economic atmosphere remain susceptible to turmoil.

Argentina - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border


Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, crude oil, uranium
Land use

Land use: 9% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 52% meadows and pastures; 22% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes 1% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil; strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage) geoad2

Argentina - People 1990
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Population: 32,290,966 (July 1990), growth rate 1.2% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Argentine(s; adjective--Argentine

Ethnic groups: 85% white, 15% mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Religions: 90% nominally Roman Catholic (less than 20% practicing), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 6% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 20 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in Buenos Aires

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 94%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Argentina - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Argentine Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires (tentative plans to move to Viedma by 1990 indefinitely postponed)

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia), 1 national territory* (territorio nacional), and 1 district** (distrito; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego and Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur*, Tucuman

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: National Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989; Vice President Eduardo DUHALDE (since 8 July 1989)

Legislative branch: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture, National Aeronautical Police Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Guido Jose Maria DI TELLA; Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,009; telephone 202) 939-6,400 through 6,403; there are Argentine Consulates General in Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles; US--Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4,300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires (mailing address is APO Miami 34,034; telephone p54o (1) 774-7,611 or 8,811, 9,911

Flag descriptionflag of Argentina: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Argentina - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Argentina is rich in natural resources, and has a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, the economy has encountered major problems in recent years, leading to a recession in 1988-89. Economic growth slowed to 2.0% in 1987 and to - 1.8% in 1988; a sharp decline of - 5.5% has been estimated for 1989. A widening public-sector deficit and a multidigit inflation rate has dominated the economy over the past three years, reaching about 5,000% in 1989. Since 1978, Argentina's external debt has nearly doubled to $60 billion, creating severe debt-servicing difficulties and hurting the country's creditworthiness with international lenders.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing; produces abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops--wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets; 1987 fish catch estimated at 500,000 tons

Industries: food processing (especially meat packing), motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: - 8% (1989)

Labor force:
10,900,000; 12% agriculture, 31%
industry, 57%
services (1985 est.)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.5% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $11.5 billion; expenditures $13.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.93 billion (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
Partners: US 14%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands

Imports: $4.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants, agricultural products
Partners: US 25%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $60 billion (December 1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: australes (A) per US$1--1,930 (December 1989), 8.7526 (1988), 2.1443 (1987), 0.9430 (1986), 0.6018 (1985)

Argentina - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Argentina - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Argentina - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1.4% of GNP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Argentina - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,799 total, 1,617 usable; 132 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 335 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 4,090 km crude oil; 2,900 km refined products; 9,918 km natural gas



Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Merchant marine: 131 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,693,540 GRT/2,707,079 DWT; includes 45 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 6 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar carrier, 48 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 18 bulk

Ports and terminals

Argentina - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas; claims British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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