Statistical information Bahrain 1990Bahrain

Map of Bahrain | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bahrain in the World
Bahrain in the World

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Bahrain - Introduction 1990
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Background: Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir is pushing economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community.

Bahrain - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specific
Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment


Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish
Land use

Land use: 2% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 6% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 90% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: proximity to primary Middle Eastern crude oil sources and strategic location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's crude oil must transit to reach open ocean

Bahrain - People 1990
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Population: 520,186 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bahraini(s; adjective--Bahraini

Ethnic groups: 63% Bahraini, 13% Asian, 10% other Arab, 8% Iranian, 6% other

Languages: Arabic (official; English also widely spoken; Farsi, Urdu

Religions: Muslim (70% Shia, 30% Sunni)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 28 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subsurface water sources being rapidly depleted (requires development of desalination facilities; dust storms; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 40%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bahrain - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: State of Bahrain

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 11 municipalities (baladiyat, singular--baladiyah; Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 16 December

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch: Chief of State--Amir Isa bin Salman Al KHALIFA (since 2 November 1961; Heir Apparent Hamad bin Isa Al KHALIFA (son of Amir; born 28 January 1950; Head of Government--Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al KHALIFA, (since 19 January 1970)

Legislative branch: Army (Defense Force), Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Ghazi Muhammad AL-QUSAYBI; Chancery at 3,502 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 342-0741 or 342-0742; there is a Bahraini Consulate General in New York; US--Ambassador Dr. Charles W. HOSTLER; Embassy at Shaikh Isa Road, Manama (mailing address is P. O. 26,431, Manama, or FPO New York 9,526; telephone p973o 714,151 through 714,153

Flag descriptionflag of Bahrain: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bahrain - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The oil price decline in recent years has had an adverse impact on the economy. Petroleum production and processing account for about 85% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 20% of GDP. In 1986 soft oil-market conditions led to a 5% drop in GDP, in sharp contrast wit the 5% average annual growth rate during the early 1980s. The slowdown in economic activity, however, has helped to check the inflation of the 1970s. The government's past economic diversification efforts have moderated the severity of the downturn but failed to offset oil and gas revenue losses.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, and fish; fish catch 9,000 metric tons in 1987

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: - 3.1% (1987)

Labor force:
140,000; 42% of labor force is Bahraini; 85%
industry and commerce, 5% agriculture, 5%
services, 3% government (1982)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8-10% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1,136 million; expenditures $1,210 million, including capital expenditures of $294 million (1987)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
Commodities: petroleum 80%, aluminum 7%, other 13%
Partners: US, UAE, Japan, Singapore, Saudi Arabia

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
Commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
Partners: UK, Saudi Arabia, US, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1--0.3760 (fixed rate)

Bahrain - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bahrain - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bahrain - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 5% of GDP, or $194 million (1990 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bahrain - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km; refined products, 16 km; natural gas, 32 km




Merchant marine: 1 cargo and 1 bulk (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,621 GRT/44,137 DWT

Ports and terminals

Bahrain - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

The Fives Hotels

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