Statistical information Bangladesh 1990Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Bangladesh in the World
Bangladesh in the World


Bangladesh - Introduction 1990
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Background: Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. A third of this desperately poor country annually floods during the monsoon rainy season hampering normal economic development.

Bangladesh - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 4,246 km total; Myanmar 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Continental shelf: up to outer limits of continental margin
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March; hot, humid summer (March to June; cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast


Natural resources: natural gas, uranium, arable land, timber
Land use

Land use: 67% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures; 16% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 14% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: almost completely surrounded by India

Bangladesh - People 1990
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Population: 118,433,062 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bangladeshi(s; adjective--Bangladesh

Ethnic groups: 98% Bengali; 250,000 Biharis, and less than 1 million tribals

Languages: Bangla (official), English widely used

Religions: 83% Muslim, about 16% Hindu, less than 1% Buddhist, Christian, and other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 42 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: vulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded during summer monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 136 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 53 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 29% (39% men, 18% women)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bangladesh - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh

Government type: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 64 districts (zillagulo, singular--zilla; Bagerhat, Bandarban, Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Borguna, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai Nawabganj, Chattagram, Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha, Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj, Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati, Jhenaidah, Khagrachari, Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur, Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator, Netrakona, Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram, Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira, Shariyatpur, Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail, Thakurgaon

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan; formerly East Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986

Legal system: based on English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD (since 11 December 1983, elected 15 October 1986; Vice President Moudad AHMED (since 12 August 1989; Head of Government--Prime Minister Qazi Zafar AHMED (since 12 August 1989)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary forces--Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Coastal Police

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador A. H. S. Ataul KARIM; Chancery at 2,201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,007; telephone (202) 342-8,372 through 8,376; there is a Bangladesh Consulate General in New York; US--Ambassador-designate William B. MILAM; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara Model Town, Dhaka (mailing address is G. P. O. Box 323, Ramna, Dhaka; telephone p88o (2) 608,170

Flag descriptionflag of Bangladesh: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is the traditional color of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bangladesh - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The economy is based on the output of a narrow range of agricultural products, such as jute, which is the main cash crop and major source of export earnings. Bangladesh is hampered by a relative lack of natural resources, a rapid population growth of 2.8% a year and a limited infrastructure, and it is highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Despite these constraints, real GDP averaged about 3.8% annually during 1985-88. One of the poorest nations in the world, alleviation of poverty remains the cornerstone of the government's development strategy. The agricultural sector contributes over 50% to GDP and 75% to exports, and employs over 74% of the labor force. Industry accounts for about 10% of GDP.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 50% of GDP and 74% of both employment and exports; imports 10% of food grain requirements; world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products--jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils and cotton; fish catch 778,000 metric tons in 1986

Industries: jute manufacturing, food processing, cotton textiles, petroleum, urea fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 5.4% (FY89 est.)

Labor force:
35,100,000; 74% agriculture, 15%
services, 11%
industry and commerce; extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, and Kuwait (FY86)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (FY88 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $3.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7 billion (FY89)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., FY89 est.)
Commodities: jute, tea, leather, shrimp, manufacturing
Partners: US 25%, Western Europe 22%, Middle East 9%, Japan 8%, Eastern Europe 7%

Imports: $3.1 billion (c.i.f., FY89 est.)
Commodities: food, petroleum and other energy, nonfood consumer goods, semiprocessed goods, and capital equipment
Partners: Western Europe 18%, Japan 14%, Middle East 9%, US 8%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $10.4 billion (December 1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1--32.270 (January 1990), 32.270 (1989), 31.733 (1988), 30.950 (1987), 30.407 (1986), 27.995 (1985)

Bangladesh - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bangladesh - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bangladesh - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1.5% of GDP, or $309 million (FY90 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bangladesh - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 16 total, 13 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 650 km natural gas



Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 331,568 GRT/493,935 DWT; includes 38 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 3 bulk

Ports and terminals

Bangladesh - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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