Statistical information Canada 1990Canada

Map of Canada | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Canada in the World
Canada in the World

Economy Bookings

Canada - Introduction 1990
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, from 1867 on Canada has enjoyed de facto independence while retaining, even to the present day, certain formal ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.

Canada - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 8,893 km with US (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims: Continental shelf:200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast


Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, crude oil, natural gas
Land use

Land use: 5% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 57% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: second-largest country in world (after USSR; strategic location between USSR and US via north polar route

Canada - People 1990
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Population: 26,538,229 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Canadian(s; adjective--Canadian

Ethnic groups: 40% British Isles origin, 27% French origin, 20% other European, 1.5% indigenous Indian and Eskimo

Languages: English and French (both official)

Religions: 46% Roman Catholic, 16% United Church, 10% Anglican

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 14 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: 80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Canada - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: none

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Raymond John HNATSHYN (since 29 January 1990; Head of Government--Prime Minister (Martin) Brian MULRONEY (since 4 September 1984; Deputy Prime Minister Donald Frank MAZANKOWSKI (since NA June 1986)

Legislative branch: Mobile Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Canadian Forces Europe, Training Commands

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, DAC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS, OECD, PAHO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Derek BURNEY; Chancery at 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,036; telephone (202) 785-1400; there are Canadian Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle; US--Ambassador Edward N. NEY; Embassy at 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa (mailing address is P. O. Box 5,000, Ogdensburg, NY 13,669; telephone (613) 238-5,335; there are US Consulates General in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag descriptionflag of Canada: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Canada - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s Canada registered one of the highest rates of growth among the OECD nations, averaging about 4%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. In mid-1990, however, the long-simmering problems between English- and French-speaking areas became so acute that observers spoke openly of a possible split in the confederation; foreign investors were becoming edgy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley; key source of US agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1989)

Labor force: 13,380,000; services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $79.2 billion; expenditures $102.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (FY88 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $127.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, grain, crude petroleum, natural gas, ferrous and nonferrous ores, motor vehicles
Partners: US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, USSR

Imports: $116.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodities: processed foods, beverages, crude petroleum, chemicals, industrial machinery, motor vehicles, durable consumer goods, electronic computers
Partners: US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, Taiwan, South Korea, Mexico

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $247 billion (1987)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1--1.1714 (January 1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986), 1.3655 (1985)

Canada - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Canada - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Canada - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 2.0% of GDP, or $10 billion (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Canada - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,359 total, 1,117 usable; 442 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 322 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: oil, 23,564 km total crude and refined; natural gas, 74,980 km



Waterways: 3,000 km, including St. Lawrence Seaway

Merchant marine: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 555,749 GRT/774,914 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 12 cargo, 2 railcar carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 29 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 10 bulk; note--does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes ships

Ports and terminals

Canada - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: maritime boundary disputes with France (St. Pierre and Miquelon) and US

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market

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