Statistical information Colombia 1990Colombia

Map of Colombia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Colombia in the World
Colombia in the World


Colombia - Introduction 1990
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Background: Colombia gained its independence from Spain in 1819. Earlier than most countries in the area, it established traditions of civilian government with regular, free elections. In recent years, however, assassinations, widespread guerrilla activities, and drug trafficking have severely disrupted normal public and private activities.

Colombia - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 7,408 km total; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km total (1,448 km North Pacific Ocean; 1,760 Caribbean Sea)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specified
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: mixture of flat coastal lowlands, plains in east, central highlands, some high mountains


Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use

Land use: 4% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 29% meadows and pastures; 49% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

Colombia - People 1990
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Population: 33,076,188 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Colombian(s; adjective--Colombian

Ethnic groups: 58% mestizo, 20% white, 14% mulatto, 4% black, 3% mixed black-Indian, 1% Indian

Languages: Spanish

Religions: 95% Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 27 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 88% (1987 est.), Indians about 40%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Colombia - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Colombia

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 23 departments (departamentos, singular--departamento), 5 commissariats* (comisarias, singular--comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias, singular--intendencia; Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*, Vichada*; note--there may be a new special district (distrito especial) named Bogota

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 4 August 1886, with amendments codified in 1946 and 1968

Legal system: based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--Virgilio BARCO Vargas (since 7 August 1986; term ends August 1990; Presidential Designate Victor MOSQUERA Chaux (since 13 October 1986; President-elect Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 27 May 1990, takes office 7 August 1990)

Legislative branch: armed forces include Police (Policia Nacional) and military--Army (Ejercito Nacional), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia), Navy (Armada Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Victor MOSQUERA; Chancery at 2,118 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 387-8,338; there are Colombian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Tampa; US--Ambassador Thomas E. McNAMARA; Embassy at Calle 38, No.8-61, Bogota (mailing address is APO Miami 34,038; telephone p57o (1) 285-1300 or 1688; there is a US Consulate in Barranquilla

Flag descriptionflag of Colombia: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Colombia - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Economic activity has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have encouraged investment and kept inflation and unemployment under 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries over the past four years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices--Colombia's major export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the summer of 1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, and drug-related violence dampen prospects for future growth.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more important

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining--gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

Industrial production growth rate: 2.0% (1989 est.)

Labor force:
11,000,000 (1986; 53%
services, 26% agriculture, 21%
industry (1981)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93 billion, capital expenditures $l.03 billion (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.76 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: coffee 30%, petroleum 24%, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
Partners: US 36%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%

Imports: $5.02 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
Commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, paper products
Partners: US 34%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $17.5 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1--439.68 (January 1990), 382.57 (1989), 299.17 (1988), 242.61 (1987), 194.26 (1986), 142.31 (1985)

Colombia - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Colombia - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Colombia - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1.9% of GDP, or $700 million (1990 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Colombia - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 673 total, 622 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 124 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 3,585 km; refined products, 1,350 km; natural gas, 830 km; natural gas liquids, 125 km



Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Merchant marine: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 334,854 GRT/487,438 DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 bulk

Ports and terminals

Colombia - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of cannabis and coca for the international drug trade; key supplier of marijuana and cocaine to the US and other international drug markets; drug production and trafficking accounts for an estimated 4% of GDP and 28% of foreign exchange earnings


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