Statistical information Ecuador 1990Ecuador

Map of Ecuador | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Ecuador in the World
Ecuador in the World

World Nomads

Ecuador - Introduction 1990
top of page

Background: The 'Republic of the Equator' was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors.

Ecuador - Geography 1990
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 2,010 km total; Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 m
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands (Sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)


Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber
Land use

Land use: 6% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 17% meadows and pastures; 51% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 2% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world geoad2

Ecuador - People 1990
top of page

Population: 10,506,668 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ecuadorian(s; adjective--Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: 55% mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish), 25% Indian, 10% Spanish, 10% black

Languages: Spanish (official; Indian languages, especially Quechua

Religions: 95% Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 30 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 85% (1981)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ecuador - Government 1990
top of page

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia; Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain; Battle of Pichincha)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809, independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18; compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos (since 10 August 1988; Vice President Luis PARODI Valverde (since 10 August 1988)

Legislative branch: Ecuadorean Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Ecuadorean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), Ecuadorean Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Andean Pact, ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Jaime MONCAYO; Chancery at 2,535 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20,009; telephone (202) 234-7,200; there are Ecuadorian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco, and a Consulate in San Diego; US--Ambassador-designate Paul C. LAMBERT; Embassy at Avenida Patria 120, on the corner of Avenida 12 de Octubre, Quito (mailing address is P. O. Box 538, Quito, or APO Miami 34,039; telephone p593o (2) 562-890; there is a US Consulate General in Guayaquil

Flag descriptionflag of Ecuador: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ecuador - Economy 1990
top of page

Economy overview: Ecuador continues to recover from a 1986 drop in international oil prices and a major earthquake in 1987 that interrupted oil exports for six months and forced Ecuador to suspend foreign debt payments. In 1988-89 oil exports recovered--accounting for nearly half of Ecuador's total export revenues--and Quito resumed full interest payments on its official debt, and partial payments on its commercial debt. The Borja administration has pursued austere economic policies that have helped reduce inflation and restore international reserves. Ecuador was granted an IMF standby agreement worth $135 million in 1989, and Quito will seek to reschedule its foreign commercial debt in 1990.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and forestry; leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other exports--coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production--rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector--cattle, sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrain, dairy products, and sugar

Industries: food processing, textiles, chemicals, fishing, timber, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1988)

Labor force:
2,800,000; 35% agriculture, 21% manufacturing, 16% commerce, 28%
services and other activities (1982)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 14.3% (1988)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $601 million (1988 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: petroleum 47%, coffee, bananas, cocoa products, shrimp, fish products
Partners: US 58%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemical, petroleum
Partners: US 28%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $10.9 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1--526.35 (1989), 301.61 (1988), 170.46 (1987), 122.78 (1986), 69.56 (1985)

Ecuador - Energy 1990
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ecuador - Communication 1990
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ecuador - Military 1990
top of page

Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1% of GDP, or $100 million (1988 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ecuador - Transportation 1990
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 179 total, 178 usable; 43 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; refined products, 1,358 km



Waterways: 1,500 km

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 340,446 GRT/492,670 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 7 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 16 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk

Ports and terminals

Ecuador - Transnational issues 1990
top of page

Disputes international: two sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: relatively small producer of coca following the successful eradication campaign of 1985-87; significant transit country, however, for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru

The Fives Hotels

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it