Statistical information El Salvador 1990El%20Salvador

Map of El Salvador | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

El Salvador in the World
El Salvador in the World


El Salvador - Introduction 1990
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Background: El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. Since 1980 a civil war has cost the lives of thousands of people.

El Salvador - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 545 km total; Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea:200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October; dry season (November to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau


Natural resources: hydropower and geothermal power, crude oil
Land use

Land use: 27% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 29% meadows and pastures; 6% forest and woodland; 30% other; includes 5% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

El Salvador - People 1990
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Population: 5,309,865 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Salvadoran(s; adjective--Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: 89% mestizo, 10% Indian, 1% white

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)

Religions: about 97% Roman Catholic, with activity by Protestant groups throughout the country

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 34 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: The Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 49 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 65%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

El Salvador - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador

Government type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular--departamento; Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Alfredo CRISTIANI (since 1 June 1989; Vice President Jose Francisco MERINO (since 1 June 1989)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police, Treasury Police

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA; Chancery at 2,308 California Street NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 265-3,480 through 3,482; there are Salvadoran Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco, US--Ambassador William G. WALKER; Embassy at 25 Avenida Norte No. 1230, San Salvador (mailing address is APO Miami 34,023; telephone p503o 26-7,100

Flag descriptionflag of El%20Salvador: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band--it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

El Salvador - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The economy experienced a modest recovery during the period 1983-86, after a sharp decline in the early 1980s. Real GDP grew by 1.5% a year on the strength of value added by the manufacturing and service sectors. In 1987 the economy expanded by 2.5% as agricultural output recovered from the 1986 drought. The agricultural sector accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 40% of the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is the major commercial crop, contributing 60% to export earnings. The manufacturing sector, based largely on food and beverage processing, accounts for 17% of GDP and 16% of employment. Economic losses due to guerrilla sabotage total more than $2.0 billion since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large military seriously constrain the government's ability to provide essential social services.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 25% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and forestry; coffee most important commercial crop; other products--sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp; not self-sufficient in food

Industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, petroleum products, cement

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1989)

Labor force: 1,700,000 (1982 est.), 40% agriculture, 16% commerce, 15% manufacturing, 13% government, 9% financial services, 6% transportation; shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower training programs improving situation (1984 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $688 million; expenditures $725 million, including capital expenditures of $112 million (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $497 million (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: coffee 60%, sugar, cotton, shrimp
Partners: US 49%, FRG 24%, Guatemala 7%, Costa Rica 4%, Japan 4%

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodities: petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs, machinery, construction materials, fertilizer
Partners: US 40%, Guatemala 12%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 7%, FRG 5%, Japan 4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.7 billion (December 1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1--5.0000 (fixed rate since 1986)

El Salvador - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

El Salvador - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

El Salvador - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 4% of GDP, or $220 million (1990 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

El Salvador - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 125 total, 84 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

El Salvador - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: several sections of the boundary with Honduras are in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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