Statistical information Ethiopia 1990Ethiopia

Map of Ethiopia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Ethiopia in the World
Ethiopia in the World


Ethiopia - Introduction 1990
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Background: Ethiopia has been ruled by the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam since 1987.

Ethiopia - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 5,141 km total; Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km

Coastline: 1,094 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea:12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation; prone to extended droughts

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley


Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 41% meadows and pastures; 24% forest and woodland; 22% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; major resettlement project ongoing in rural areas will significantly alter population distribution and settlement patterns over the next several decades

Ethiopia - People 1990
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Population: 51,666,622 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ethiopian(s; adjective--Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: 40% Oromo, 32% Amhara and Tigrean, 9% Sidamo, 6% Shankella, 6% Somali, 4% Afar, 2% Gurage, 1% other

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Religions: 40-45% Muslim, 35-40% Ethiopian Orthodox, 15-20% animist, 5% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 45 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; frequent droughts; famine

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 52 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 55.2%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ethiopia - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 14 administrative regions (plural--NA, singular--kifle hager; Arsi, Bale, Eritrea, Gamo Gofa, Gojam, Gonder, Harerge, Ilubabor, Kefa, Shewa, Sidamo, Tigray, Welega, Welo; note--the administrative structure may be changing to 25 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular--astedader akababee) and 5 autonomous regions* (rasgez akababiwach, singular--rasgez akababee; Addis Ababa, Arsi, Aseb*, Asosa, Bale, Borena, Dire Dawa*, East Gojam, East Harerge, Eritrea*, Gambela, Gamo Gofa, Ilubabor, Kefa, Metekel, Nazaret, North Gonder, North Shewa, North Welo, Ogaden*, Omo, Sidamo, South Gonder, South Shewa, South Welo, Tigray*, Welega, West Gojam, West Harerge, West Shewa

Dependent areas

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world--at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Revolution Day, 12 September (1974)

Constitution: 12 September 1987

Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common, and customary law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President MENGISTU Haile-Mariam (Chairman from 11 September 1977 until becoming President on 10 September 1987; Vice President FISSEHA Desta (since 10 September 1987; Head of Government--Prime Minister (Acting) and Deputy Prime Minister HAILU Yimenu (since 7 November 1989; Deputy Prime Minister WOLLE Chekol (since 21 November 1989; Deputy Prime Minister ALEMU Abebe (since 10 September 1987; Deputy Prime Minister TESFAYE Dinka (since 10 September 1987; Deputy Prime Minister ASHAGRE Yigletu (since 21 November 1989)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us: Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim GIRMA Amare; Chancery at 2,134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 234-2,281 or 2,282; US--Charge d'Affaires Robert G. HOUDEK; Embassy at Entoto Street, Addis Ababa (mailing address is P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa; telephone 254-233-4,141

Flag descriptionflag of Ethiopia: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ethiopia - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates over 60% of export earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. The economy is centrally planned, and over 90% of large-scale industry is state run. Favorable agricultural weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important sector of the economy even though frequent droughts, poor cultivation practices, and state economic policies keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock--cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, potatoes, sugarcane, vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

Industries: cement, textiles, food processing, oil refinery

Industrial production growth rate: - 0.2% (FY88 est.)

Labor force:
18,000,000; 80% agriculture and animal husbandry, 12% government and services, 8%
industry and construction (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA; shortage of skilled manpower

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (FY87)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $418 million (f.o.b., FY88)
Commodities: coffee 60%, hides
Partners: US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88), commodities--food, fuels, capital goods
Partners: USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.6 billion (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1--2.0700 (fixed rate)

Ethiopia - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ethiopia - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ethiopia - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 8.5% of GDP (1988)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ethiopia - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 152 total, 111 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 51 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,837 GRT/92,067 DWT; includes 10 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Ports and terminals

Ethiopia - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden; separatist movement in Eritrea; antigovernment insurgencies in Tigray and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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