Statistical information Finland 1990Finland

Map of Finland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Finland in the World
Finland in the World


Finland - Introduction 1990
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Background: Long ruled by foreign powers, including Sweden and the pre-revolutionary Russian Empire, Finland finally declared independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland fought the USSR twice and then the Germans toward the end of the war. In the following half-century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy. Per capita income has risen to the West European level.

Finland - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 2,578 km total; Norway 729 km, Sweden 536 km, USSR 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km excluding islands and coastal indentations

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 6 nm
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills


Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use

Land use: 8% arable land; 0% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and pastures; 76% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: long boundary with USSR; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent

Finland - People 1990
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Population: 4,977,325 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Finn(s; adjective--Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Languages: 93.5% Finnish, 6.3% Swedish (both official; small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Religions: 97% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.2% Eastern Orthodox, 1.8% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 13 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: almost 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Finland - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Finland

Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular--laani; Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982; Head of Government--Prime Minister Harri HOLKERI (since 30 April 1987; Deputy Prime Minister Pertti PAASIO (since NA January 1989)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, CCC, CEMA (special cooperation agreement), DAC, EC (free trade agreement), EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at 3,216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,016; telephone (202) 363-2,430; there are Finnish Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York, and Consulates in Chicago and Houston; US--Ambassador John G. WEINMANN; Embassy at Itainen Puistotie 14ASF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO New York 9,664; telephone p358o (0) 171,931

Flag descriptionflag of Finland: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Finland - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with per capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure. Its main economic force is the manufacturing sector--principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about 25% of GNP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imported raw materials, energy, and some components of manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic commodities. Economic prospects are generally bright, the main shadow being the increasing pressures on wages and prices.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 8% of GNP (including forestry; livestock production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops--cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of food and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Industries: metal manufacturing and shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1989)

Labor force:
2,556,000; 33.1%
services, 22.9% mining and manufacturing, 13.8% commerce, 10.3% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 7.2% construction, 7.1% transportation and communications (1989 est.)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.4% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $28.3 billion; expenditures $28.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1988 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $22.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
Partners: EC 44.2% (UK 13.0%, FRG 10.8%), USSR 14.9%, Sweden 14.1%, US 5.8%

Imports: $22.0 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder grains
Partners: EC 43.5% (FRG 16.9%, UK 6.8%), Sweden 13.3%, USSR 12.1%, US 6.3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.3 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1--4.0022 (January 1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987), 5.0695 (1986), 6.1979 (1985)

Finland - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Finland - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Finland - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1.5% of GDP (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Finland - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 160 total, 157 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas, 580 km



Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Merchant marine: 82 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 737,811 GRT/764,695 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 11 short-sea passenger, 18 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 24 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Finland - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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