Statistical information Ghana 1990Ghana

Map of Ghana | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Ghana in the World
Ghana in the World


Ghana - Introduction 1990
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Background: Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory Ghana in 1957 became the first country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties.

Ghana - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 2,093 km total; Burkina 548 km, Ivory Coast 668 km, Togo 877 km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area


Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use

Land use: 5% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 15% meadows and pastures; 37% forest and woodland; 36% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: Lake Volta is world's largest artificial lake

Ghana - People 1990
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Population: 15,165,243 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ghanaian(s; adjective--Ghanaian

Ethnic groups: 99.8% black African (major tribes--44% Akan, 16% Moshi-Dagomba, 13% Ewe, 8% Ga), 0.2% European and other

Languages: English (official; African languages include Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga

Religions: 38% indigenous beliefs, 30% Muslim, 24% Christian, 8% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 46 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: recent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry, northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 53.2%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ghana - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ghana

Government type: military

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK, formerly Gold Coast)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution: 24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council Flt. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 31 December 1981)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Palace Guard, paramilitary People's Militia

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Eric K. OTOO; Chancery at 2,460 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20,009; telephone (202) 462-0761; there is a Ghanaian Consulate General in New York; US--Ambassador Raymond C. EWING; Embassy at Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra (mailing address is P. O. Box 194, Accra; telephone 775,347 through 775,349

Flag descriptionflag of Ghana: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ghana - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983. Good harvests in 1988 featured the 6% growth in GNP. Moves toward privatization and relaxation of government controls continued in 1988-89, although at a slower-than-expected pace. In 1988 service on the $2.8 billion debt was equivalent to 75% of export earnings. As Ghana obtains concessional loans and pays off high-interest debt, however, debt service is expected to fall below 30% of export earnings in the early 1990s. The economic rebuilding program has both helped and harmed the manufacturing sector, for example, by improving the supply of raw materials and by increasing competition from imports. The long-term outlook is favorable provided that the political structure can endure the slow pace at which living standards are improving and can manage the problems stemming from excessive population growth.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for more than 50% of GDP (including fishing and forestry; the major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops--rice, coffee, cassava, peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing, aluminum, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% in manufacturing (1987)

Labor force:
3,700,000; 54.7% agriculture and fishing, 18.7%
industry, 15.2% sales and clerical, 7.7%
services, transportation, and communications, 3.7% professional; 48% of population of working age (1983)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 26% (April 1987)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $769 million; expenditures $749 million, including capital expenditures of $179 million (1988 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $977 million (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: cocoa 60%, timber, gold, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
Partners: US 23%, UK, other EC

Imports: $988 million (c.i.f., 1987)
Commodities: petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment
Partners: US 10%, UK, FRG, France, Japan, South Korea, GDR

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: cedis (C) per US$1--301.68 (December 1989), 270.00 (1989), 202.35 (1988), 153.73 (1987), 89.20 (1986), 54.37 (1985)

Ghana - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ghana - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ghana - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 0.9% of GNP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ghana - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 10 total, 9 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: none



Waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 155 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,016 GRT/66,627 DWT

Ports and terminals

Ghana - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade

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