Statistical information Greece 1990Greece

Map of Greece | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Greece in the World
Greece in the World


Greece - Introduction 1990
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Background: Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949 Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship which in 1967 had suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country was itself overthrown seven years later. Democratic elections in 1974 abolished the monarchy and created a parliamentary republic; Greece joined the EU in 1981.

Greece - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 1,228 km total; Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Yugoslavia 246 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of islands


Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, crude oil, marble
Land use

Land use: 23% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 9% other; includes 7% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits

Greece - People 1990
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Population: 10,028,171 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Greek(s; adjective--Greek

Ethnic groups: Greek 98%, others 2%; note--the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

Languages: Greek (official; English and French widely understood

Religions: 98% Greek Orthodox, 1.3% Muslim, 0.7% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 11 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution; archipelago of 2,000 islands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 95%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Greece - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Hellenic Republic

Government type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions: 51 departments (nomoi, singular--nomos; Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Drama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos

Dependent areas

Independence: 1827 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day (proclamation of the war of independence), 25 March (1821)

Constitution: 11 June 1975

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Christos SARTZETAKIS (since 30 March 1985; Head of Government--Prime Minister Constantin MITSOTAKIS (since 11 April 1990)

Legislative branch: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, EC, EIB (associate), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS; Chancery at 2,221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 667-3,168; there are Greek Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and a Consulate in New Orleans; US--Ambassador Michael G. SOTIRHOS; Embassy at 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10,160 Athens (mailing address is APO New York 9,253; telephone p30o (1) 721-2,951 or 721-8,401; there is a US Consulate General in Thessaloniki

Flag descriptionflag of Greece: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Christianity, the established religion of the country

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Greece - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Greece has a mixed capitalistic economy with the basic entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist-left-government that enlarged the public sector and became the nation's largest employer. Like many other Western economies, Greece suffered severely from the global oil price hikes of the 1970s, annual GDP growth plunging from 8% to 2% in the 1980s, and inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits rising sharply. The fall of the socialist government in 1989 and the inability of the conservative opposition to muster a clear majority have led to business uncertainty and the continued prospects for lackluster economic performance. Once the political situation is sorted out, Greece will have to face the challenges posed by the steadily increasing integration of the European Community, including the progressive lowering of tariff barriers. Tourism continues as a major industry, providing a vital offset to the sizable commodity trade deficit.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 14% of GNP and 27% of the labor force; principal products--wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes, beef, mutton, pork, dairy products; self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 135,000 metric tons in 1987

Industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, mining, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 1.6% (1989 est.)

Labor force:
3,860,000; 43%
services, 27% agriculture, 20% manufacturing and mining, 7% construction (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1988)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $15.5 billion; expenditures $23.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuels and lubricants, raw materials
Partners: FRG 24%, Italy 14%, nonoil developing countries 11.8%, France 9.5%, US 7.1%, UK 6.8%

Imports: $13.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment, light manufactures, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs, chemicals
Partners: FRG 22%, nonoil developing countries 14%, oil exporting countries 13%, Italy 12%, France 8%, US 3.2%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $20.0 billion (December 1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: drachma (Dr) per US$1--158.03 (January 1990), 162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988), 135.43 (1987), 139.98 (1986), 138.12 (1985)

Greece - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Greece - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Greece - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 6.0% of GDP, or $3.4 billion (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Greece - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 79 total, 77 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 26 km; refined products, 547 km



Waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals and three unconnected rivers

Merchant marine: 954 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,544,516 GRT/36,858,545 DWT; includes 15 passenger, 58 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 164 cargo, 18 container, 20 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 27 refrigerated cargo, 182 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 20 combination ore/oil, 6 specialized tanker, 407 bulk, 15 specialized bulk; note--ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, and Lebanon

Ports and terminals

Greece - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Macedonia question with Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question with Albania

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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