Statistical information Hong Kong 1990Hong%20Kong

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Hong Kong in the World
Hong Kong in the World

Hong Kong - Introduction 1990
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Background: Pursuant to the agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong will become a special administrative region of China on 1 July 1997. Under the terms of this agreement, China has promised that Hong Kong shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs.

Hong Kong - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 30 km with China

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims: Continental shelf:200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north


Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use

Land use: 7% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 79% other; includes 3% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Hong Kong - People 1990
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Population: 5,759,990 (July 1990), growth rate 1.0% (1990)

Nationality: adjective--Hong Kong

Ethnic groups: 98% Chinese, 2% other

Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English

Religions: 90% eclectic mixture of local religions, 10% Christian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 13 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons geoad2

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 75%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Hong Kong - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: none; abbreviated HK

Government type: colony of the UK; scheduled to revert to China in 1997

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (colony of the UK)

Dependent areas

Independence: none (colony of the UK; the UK signed an agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system: based on English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: limited to about 71,000 professionals of electoral college and functional constituencies

Executive branch: Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952; Head of Government--Governor Sir David Clive WILSON (since 9 April 1987; Chief Secretary Sir David Robert FORD (since NA February 1987)

Legislative branch: Headquarters of British Forces, Gurkha Brigade, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, ESCAP (associate member), GATT, IMO, INTERPOL, Multifiber Arrangement, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: as a British colony, the interests of Hong Kong in the US are represented by the UK; US--Consul General Donald M. ANDERSON; Consulate General at 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO San Francisco 96,659-0002; telephone p852o (5) 239,011

Flag descriptionflag of Hong%20Kong: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Hong Kong - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Hong Kong has a free-market economy and is autonomous in financial affairs. Natural resources are limited and food and raw materials must be imported. Manufacturing is the backbone of the economy, accounting for more than 20% of GDP, employing 36% of the labor force, and exporting about 90% of output. Real GDP growth averaged a remakable 8% in 1987-88, then slowed to a respectable 3% in 1989. Unemployment, which has been declining since the mid-1980s, is now less than 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain solid so long as major trading partners continue to be prosperous. The crackdown in China in 1989 casts a long shadow over the longer term economic outlook.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20% self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate: 7.0% (1988)

Labor force:
2,640,000; 35.8% manufacturing; 22.7% wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotel, 17.1%
services, 7.5% construction, 8.4% transport and communications, 6.1% financing, insurance, and real estate (1986)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1988)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: $6.9 billion (FY89)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $63.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988), including reexports of $22.9 billion
Commodities: clothing, textile yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys
Partners: US 31%, China 14%, FRG 8%, UK 6%, Japan 5%

Imports: $63.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum
Partners: China 31%, Japan 20%, Taiwan 9%, US 8%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $9.6 billion (December 1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$--7.800 (March 1989), 7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987), 7.795 (1986), 7.811 (1985; note--linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985

Hong Kong - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Hong Kong - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Hong Kong - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 0.5% of GDP, or $300 million (1989 est.), this represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending the colony, the remainder being paid by the UK

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Hong Kong - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine: 134 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 4,391,102 GRT/7,430,337 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 13 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil, 7 liquefied gas, 69 bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag and an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere

Ports and terminals

Hong Kong - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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