Statistical information Indonesia 1990Indonesia

Map of Indonesia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Indonesia in the World
Indonesia in the World


Indonesia - Introduction 1990
top of page

Background: Indonesia declared its independence in 1945 from the Netherlands, a claim disputed, then recognized by the Dutch in 1949. In 1975 Indonesian troops occupied Portuguese East Timor. Current issues include implementing IMF-mandated reforms (particularly restructuring and recapitalizing the insolvent banking sector), effecting a transition to a popularly elected government, addressing longstanding grievances over the role of the ethnic Chinese business class and charges of cronyism and corruption, alleged human rights violations by the military, the role of the military and religion in politics, and growing pressures for some form of independence or autonomy by Aceh, Irian Jaya, and East Timor.

Indonesia - Geography 1990
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 2,602 km total; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains


Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use

Land use: 8% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures; 67% forest and woodland; 15% other; includes 3% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Indonesia - People 1990
top of page

Population: 190,136,221 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Indonesian(s; adjective--Indonesian

Ethnic groups: majority of Malay stock comprising 45.0% Javanese, 14.0% Sundanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 26.0% other

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official; English and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Religions: 88% Muslim, 6% Protestant, 3% Roman Catholic, 2% Hindu, 1% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 27 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited; occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 75 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 62%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Indonesia - Government 1990
top of page

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular--propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular--daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota; Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly Netherlands or Dutch East Indies)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968; Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO (since 11 March 1983)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries, CCC, CIPEC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY; Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,036; telephone (202) 775-5,200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in Houston, New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San Francisco; US--Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96,356; telephone p62o (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya

Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Indonesia - Economy 1990
top of page

Economy overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth but, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. GNP growth in 1985-89 averaged about 4%, somewhat short of the 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is the most important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops--rubber and palm oil--are being encouraged for both export and job generation. The diverse natural resources include crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989. Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation production for export; rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, copra, other tropical products

Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer production, timber, food, rubber

Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (1988 est.)

Labor force: 67,000,000; 55% agriculture, 10% manufacturing, 4% construction, 3% transport and communications (1985 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $20.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (FY89)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $21.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%
Partners: Japan 42%, US 16%, Singapore 9%, EC 11% (1988)

Imports: $13.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%
Partners: Japan 26%, EC 19%, US 13%, Singapore 7% (1988)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $55.0 billion, medium and long-term (1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1--1,804.9 (January 1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987), 1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)

Indonesia - Energy 1990
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Indonesia - Communication 1990
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Indonesia - Military 1990
top of page

Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 2.1% of GNP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Indonesia - Transportation 1990
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 468 total, 435 usable; 106 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 62 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural gas, 1,703 km (1989)



Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Merchant marine: 313 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,480,912 GRT/2,245,233 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 173 cargo, 6 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 77 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 24 bulk

Ports and terminals

Indonesia - Transnational issues 1990
top of page

Disputes international: East Timor question with Portugal

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it