Statistical information Iran 1990Iran

Map of Iran | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Iran in the World
Iran in the World

Iran - Introduction 1990
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Background: Known as Persia until 1935 Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces subsequently crushed westernizing liberal elements. Militant Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88 Iran fought a bloody indecisive war with Iraq over disputed territory. The key current issue is how rapidly the country should open up to the modernizing influences of the outside world.

Iran - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km

Coastline: 3,180 km

Maritime claims: Continental shelf:not specific;

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Land use

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Iran - People 1990
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Population: 55,647,001 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Iranian(s; adjective--Iranian

Ethnic groups: 51% Persian, 25% Azerbaijani, 9% Kurd, 8% Gilaki and Mazandarani, 2% Lur, 1% Baloch, 1% Arab, 3% other

Languages: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other

Religions: 95% Shia Muslim, 4% Sunni Muslim, 2% Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Bahai

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 45 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 91 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 48% (est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Iran - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran

Government type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular--ostan; Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency

Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 15

Executive branch: Cleric and functional Chief of State--Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 3 June 1989; Head of Government--President Ali Akbar RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989;

Legislative branch: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and naval forces), Gendarmerie

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IPU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNIDO, WHO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none; protecting power in the US is Algeria--Iranian Interests Section, 2,209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,007; telephone (202) 965-4,990; US--protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag descriptionflag of Iran: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Iran - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry, transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the new five-year plan--the first since the revolution--passed in January 1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises to the private sector. War-related disruptions, massive corruption, mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological rigidities have kept economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts for 90% of export revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil prices brought a 2% drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in 1989, considerably short of the 3.4% population growth rate in 1989. Heating oil and gasoline are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the war, land reform, and shortages of equipment and materials. The five-year plan seeks to reinvigorate the economy by increasing the role of the private sector, boosting nonoil income, and securing foreign loans. The plan is overly ambitious but probably will generate some short-term relief.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: principal products--rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 15,400,000; 33% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $55.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (FY88 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
Partners: Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG

Imports: $12.0 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products
Partners: FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4-5 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1--70.019 (January 1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760 (1986), 91.052 (1985)

Iran - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Iran - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Iran - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 8% of GNP, or $7.8 billion (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Iran - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 201 total, 175 usable; 82 with permanent-surface runways; 17 with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 68 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural gas, 3,300 km



Waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war

Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,631,836 GRT/8,662,454 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 49 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Iran - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: Iran began formal UN peace negotiations with Iraq in August 1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980--troop withdrawal, freedom of navigation, sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway and prisoner-of-war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; occupies three islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb; periodic disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with Afghanistan and Pakistan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international drug trade


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