Statistical information Jamaica 1990Jamaica

Map of Jamaica | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Jamaica in the World
Jamaica in the World


Jamaica - Introduction 1990
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Background: Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a dropoff in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office and a more conservative government installed.

Jamaica - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea:12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain


Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use

Land use: 19% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 29% other; includes 3% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

Jamaica - People 1990
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Population: 2,441,396 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Jamaican(s; adjective--Jamaican

Ethnic groups: 76.3% African, 15.1% Afro-European, 3.4% East Indian and Afro-East Indian, 3.2% white, 1.2% Chinese and Afro-Chinese, 0.8% other

Languages: English, Creole

Religions: predominantly Protestant (including Anglican and Baptist), some Roman Catholic, some spiritualist cults

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 21 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to hurricanes (especially July to November; deforestation; water pollution

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 16 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 74%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Jamaica - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: none

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August), 6 August 1990

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Florizel A. GLASSPOLE (since 2 March 1973; Head of Government--Prime Minister Michael MANLEY (since 9 February 1989)

Legislative branch: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Coast Guard and Air Wing)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Keith JOHNSON; Chancery at Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington DC 20,006; telephone (202) 452-0660; there are Jamaican Consulates General in Miami and New York; US--Ambassador Glen HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone p809o 929-4,850

Flag descriptionflag of Jamaica: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles--green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Jamaica - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism. In 1985 it suffered a setback with the closure of some facilities in the bauxite and alumina industry, a major source of hard currency earnings. Since 1986 an economic recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions began to improve for the bauxite and alumina industry because of increases in world metal prices. The recovery has also been supported by growth in the manufacturing and tourism sectors. In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on crops and the electric power system, a sharp but temporary setback to the economy. By October 1989 the economic recovery from the hurricane was largely complete and real growth was up about 3% for 1989.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 9% of GDP, one-third of work force, and 17% of exports; commercial crops--sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, and vegetables; livestock and livestock products include poultry, goats, milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products

Industries: tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1989 est.)

Labor force:
728,700; 32% agriculture, 28%
industry and commerce, 27%
services, 13% government; shortage of technical and managerial personnel (1984)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 18.7% (1988)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $948 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas
Partners: US 40%, UK, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, Norway

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
Commodities: petroleum, machinery, food, consumer goods, construction goods
Partners: US 46%, UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.4 billion (1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1--6.5013 (January 1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778 (1986), 5.5586 (1985)

Jamaica - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Jamaica - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Jamaica - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1.1% of GDP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Jamaica - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 41 total, 25 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: refined products, 10 km




Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,048 GRT/21,412 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk

Ports and terminals

Jamaica - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis has decreased, with production shifting from large to small plots and nurseries to evade aerial detection and eradication

Crystal Travel

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