Statistical information Libya 1990Libya

Map of Libya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Libya in the World
Libya in the World

World Nomads

Libya - Introduction 1990
top of page

Background: Since he took power in a 1969 military coup Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader he used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures failed e.g. the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987.

Libya - Geography 1990
top of page


Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 4,383 km total; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea:12 nm; Gulf of Sidra closing line:32o 30' N

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions


Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum
Land use

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 8% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 91% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities geoad2

Libya - People 1990
top of page

Population: 4,221,141 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Libyan(s; adjective--Libyan

Ethnic groups: 97% Berber and Arab; some Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

Languages: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities

Religions: 97% Sunni Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 37 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 64 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.2 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 50-60%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Libya - Government 1990
top of page

Country name: conventional long form: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses; in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 46 municipalities (baladiyat, singular--baladiyah; Ajdabiya, Al Abyar, Al Aziziyah, Al Bayda, Al Jufrah, Al Jumayl, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Qarabulli, Al Qubbah, Al Ujaylat, Ash Shati, Awbari, Az Zahra, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Bani Walid, Bin Jawwad, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Ghat, Jadu, Jalu, Janzur, Masallatah, Misratah, Mizdah, Murzuq, Nalut, Qaminis, Qasr Bin Ghashir, Sabha, Sabratah, Shahhat, Surman, Surt, Tajura, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Tukrah, Yafran, Zlitan, Zuwarah; note--the number of municipalities may have been reduced to 13 named Al Jabal al-Akhdar, Al Jabal al-Gharbi, Al Jabal al-Khums, Al Batnam, Al Kufrah, Al Marqab, Al Marzuq, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Khalij Surt, Sabha, Tripoli, Wadi al-Hayat

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969; Head of Government--Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier) Umar Mustafa al-MUNTASIR (since 1 March 1987)

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Libya: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Libya - Economy 1990
top of page

Economy overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes virtually all export earnings and over 50% to GNP. Since 1980, however, the sharp drop in oil prices and resulting decline in export revenues has adversely affected economic development. In 1986 per capita GNP was the highest in Africa at $5,410, but it had been $2,000 higher in 1982. Severe cutbacks in imports over the past five years have led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs, although the reopening of the Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the Libyan-Egyptian border in December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages. Austerity budgets and a lack of trained technicians have undermined the government's ability to implement a number of planned infrastructure development projects. The nonoil industrial and construction sectors, which account for about 15% of GNP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for less than 5% of GNP, it employs 20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output, requiring Libya to import about 75% of its food requirements.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: 5% of GNP; cash crops--wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force:
1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident foreigners; 31%
industry, 27%
services, 24% government, 18% agriculture

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2% (1988 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $11.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.6 billion (1986 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
Commodities: petroleum, peanuts, hides
Partners: Italy, USSR, FRG, Spain, France, Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey

Imports: $5.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
Commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
Partners: Italy, USSR, FRG, UK, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.1 billion, excluding military debt (December 1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1--0.2896 (January 1990), 0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987), 0.3139 (1986), 0.2961 (1985)

Libya - Energy 1990
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Libya - Communication 1990
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Libya - Military 1990
top of page

Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 11.1% of GNP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Libya - Transportation 1990
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 130 total, 122 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 7 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; refined products 443 km (includes 256 km liquid petroleum gas)




Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 816,546 GRT/1,454,874 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Ports and terminals

Libya - Transnational issues 1990
top of page

Disputes international: claims and occupies a small portion of the Aozou Strip in northern Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about 19,400 km² in northern Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km² in southeastern Algeria

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it