Statistical information Liechtenstein 1990Liechtenstein

Map of Liechtenstein | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Liechtenstein in the World
Liechtenstein in the World

Qatar Airways

Liechtenstein - Introduction 1990
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Background: The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I it was closely tied to Austria but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth.

Liechtenstein - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third


Natural resources: hydroelectric potential
Land use

Land use: 25% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 38% meadows and pastures; 19% forest and woodland; 18% other

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland

Liechtenstein - People 1990
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Population: 28,292 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Liechtensteiner(s; adjective--Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups: 95% Alemannic, 5% Italian and other

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Religions: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Protestant, 10.2% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 13 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Liechtenstein - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular--gemeinde; Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Dependent areas

Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established

National holiday: St. Joseph's Day, 19 March

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--Prince HANS ADAM von und zu Liechtenstein (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26 August 1984; Head of Government--Prime Minister Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978; Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases and Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Council of Europe, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNICEF, UPU, WIPO; considering UN membership; has consultative status in the EC

Diplomatic representation
In the us: in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy; US--the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag descriptionflag of Liechtenstein: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Liechtenstein - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light industry and some farming. Industry accounts for 54% of total employment, the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10 million annually and accounts for 10% of revenues. Low business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes, provide an additional 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living standards parallel those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force:
12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from Switzerland and Austria; 54.4%
industry, trade, and building; 41.6%
services; 4.0% agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $171 million; expenditures $189 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $807 million
Commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
Partners: EC 40%, EFTA 26% (Switzerland 19%) (1986)

Imports: $NA
Commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1--1.5150 (January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)

Liechtenstein - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Liechtenstein - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Liechtenstein - Military 1990
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Liechtenstein - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: none

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Liechtenstein - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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