Statistical information Macau 1990Macau

Map of Macau | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Macau in the World
Macau in the World


Macau - Introduction 1990
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Background: Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987 Macau will become the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that under its 'one country two systems' formula China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs.

Macau - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 0.34 km with China

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat


Natural resources: negligible
Land use

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: defense is responsibility of Portugal

Macau - People 1990
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Population: 441,691 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Macanese (sing. and pl.; adjective--Macau

Ethnic groups: 95% Chinese, 3% Portuguese, 2% other

Languages: Portuguese (official; Cantonese is the language of commerce

Religions: mainly Buddhist; 17,000 Roman Catholics, of whom about half are Chinese

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 16 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands to the peninsula on mainland

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: almost 100% among Portuguese and Macanese; no data on Chinese population

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Macau - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: none

Government type: overseas territory of Portugal; scheduled to revert to China in 1999

Capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular--concelho; Ilhas, Macau

Dependent areas

Independence: none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9 March 1986; Head of Government--Governor Carlos MELANCIA (since 3 July 1987)

Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Multifiber Agreement

Diplomatic representation
In the us: as Chinese territory under Portuguese administration, Macanese interests in the US are represented by Portugal; US--the US has no offices in Macau and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag descriptionflag of Macau: the flag of Portugal is used

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Macau - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling), and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small industries--toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: rice, vegetables; food shortages--rice, vegetables, meat; depends mostly on imports for food requirements

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force: 180,000 (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.7 billion (1989 est.)
Commodities: textiles, clothing, toys
Partners: US 33%, Hong Kong 15%, FRG 12%, France 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.6 billion (1989 est.)
Commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
Partners: Hong Kong 39%, China 21%, Japan 10% (1987)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $91 million (1985)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1--8.03 (1989), 8.044 (1988), 7.993 (1987), 8.029 (1986), 8.045 (1985; note--linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Macau - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Macau - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Macau - Military 1990
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Macau - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: none; 1 seaplane station

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Macau - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1999

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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