Statistical information Madagascar 1990Madagascar

Map of Madagascar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Madagascar in the World
Madagascar in the World


Madagascar - Introduction 1990
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom Madagascar became a French colony in 1886 but regained its independence in 1960. It has been under single-party rule since 1965.

Madagascar - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center


Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish
Land use

Land use: 4% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 58% meadows and pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 2% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

Madagascar - People 1990
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Population: 11,800,524 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Malagasy (sing. and pl.; adjective--Malagasy

Ethnic groups: basic split between highlanders of predominantly Malayo-Indonesian origin (Merina 1,643,000 and related Betsileo 760,000) on the one hand and coastal tribes, collectively termed the Cotiers, with mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka 941,000, Tsimihety 442,000, Antaisaka 415,000, Sakalava 375,000), on the other; there are also 11,000 European French, 5,000 Indians of French nationality, and 5,000 Creoles

Languages: French and Malagasy (official)

Religions: 52% indigenous beliefs; about 41% Christian, 7% Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 47 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 67.5%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Madagascar - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Madagascar

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (plural--NA, singular--faritanin; Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy Republic)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 21 December 1975

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June 1975; Head of Government--Prime Minister Lt. Col. Victor RAMAHATRA (since 12 February 1988)

Legislative branch: Popular Army, Aeronaval Forces (includes Navy and Air Force), paramilitary Gendarmerie

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO; Chancery at 2,374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 265-5,525 or 5,526; there is a Malagasy Consulate General in New York; US--Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620, Antananarivo; telephone 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18

Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Madagascar - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. During the period 1980-85 it had a population growth of 3% a year and a - 0.4% GDP growth rate. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 40% of GDP, employing about 85% of the labor force, and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry is confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1988 it contributed only 16% to GDP and employed 3% of the labor force. Industrial development has been hampered by government policies that have restricted imports of equipment and spare parts and put strict controls on foreign-owned enterprises. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year development plan that stresses self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops--coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops--rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising widespread; not self-sufficient in rice and wheat flour

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, brewery, tanneries, sugar refining), light consumer goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: - 3.9 % (1988)

Labor force:
4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners--26% agriculture, 17% domestic service, 15%
industry, 14% commerce, 11% construction, 9%
services, 6% transportation, 2% other; 51% of population of working age (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $337 million; expenditures $245 million, including capital expenditures of $163 million (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $284 million (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum products
Partners: France, Japan, Italy, FRG, US

Imports: $319 million (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%
Partners: France, FRG, UK, other EC, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.6 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1--1,531.0 (January 1990), 1603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987), 676.3 (1986), 662.5 (1985)

Madagascar - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Madagascar - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Madagascar - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 2.2% of GDP, or $37 million (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Madagascar - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 147 total, 115 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 58,126 GRT/79,420 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

Ports and terminals

Madagascar - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption


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