Statistical information Malawi 1990Malawi

Map of Malawi | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Malawi in the World
Malawi in the World


Malawi - Introduction 1990
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Background: Established in 1891 the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. It has had one-party rule ever since.

Malawi - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 2,881 km total; Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May; dry season (May to November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains


Natural resources: limestone; unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land use

Land use: 25% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures; 50% forest and woodland; 5% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the Beira or Nacala railroads, but now most go through South Africa because of insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

Malawi - People 1990
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Population: 9,157,528 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Malawian(s; adjective--Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

Languages: English and Chichewa (official; other languages important regionally

Religions: 55% Protestant, 20% Roman Catholic, 20% Muslim; traditional indigenous beliefs are also practiced

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 52 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 16 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 130 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.7 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 41.2%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Malawi - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malawi

Government type: one-party state

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Kasupe, Lilongwe, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ncheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhota Kota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK; formerly Nyasaland)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

Constitution: 6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 21

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Dr. Hastings Kamuzu BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as President for Life 6 July 1971)

Legislative branch: Army, Army Air Wing, Army Naval Detachment, paramilitary Police Mobile Force Unit, paramilitary Young Pioneers

Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, EC (associated member), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA; Chancery at 2,408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 797-1007; US--Ambassador George A. TRAIL, III; Embassy in new capital city development area, address NA (mailing address is P. O. Box 30,016, Lilongwe; telephone 730-166

Flag descriptionflag of Malawi: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the flag of Afghanistan which is longer and has the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Malawi - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: A landlocked country, Malawi ranks among the world's least developed with a per capita GDP of $180. The economy is predominately agricultural and operates under a relatively free enterprise environment, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. After two years of weak performance, economic growth improved significantly in 1988 as a result of good weather and a broadly based economic adjustment effort by the government. The closure of traditional trade routes through Mozambique continues to be a constraint on the economy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops--tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops--potatoes, cassava, sorghum, pulses; livestock--cattle and goats

Industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement, consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (1988)

Labor force: 428,000 wage earners; 43% agriculture, 16% manufacturing, 15% personal services, 9% commerce, 7% construction, 4% miscellaneous services, 6% other permanently employed (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $246 million; expenditures $390 million, including capital expenditures of $97 million (FY88 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $292 million (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts
Partners: US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, FRG

Imports: $402 million (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: food, petroleum, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Partners: South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.4 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1--2.6793 (January 1990), 2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987), 1.8611 (1986), 1.7191 (1985)

Malawi - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Malawi - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Malawi - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 1.6% of GDP, or $22 million (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Malawi - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 48 total, 47 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi; Shire River, 144 km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Malawi - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Qatar Airways

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