Statistical information Mali 1990Mali

Map of Mali | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Mali in the World
Mali in the World


Mali - Introduction 1990
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Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali.

Mali - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 7,243 km total; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast


Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 7% forest and woodland; 66% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked

Mali - People 1990
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Population: 8,142,373 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Malian(s; adjective--Malian

Ethnic groups: 50% Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), 17% Peul, 12% Voltaic, 6% Songhai, 5% Tuareg and Moor, 10% other

Languages: French (official; Bambara spoken by about 80% of the population; numerous African languages

Religions: 90% Muslim, 9% indigenous beliefs, 1% Christian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 51 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 47 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 18%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mali - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali

Government type: republic; single-party constitutional government

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions, singular--region; Gao, Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou; note--there may be a new capital district of Bamako

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French Sudan)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: 2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended September 1981 and March 1985

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 21

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Moussa TRAORE (since 6 December 1968)

Legislative branch: Army, Air Force; paramilitary, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO,

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Alhousseyni TOURE; Chancery at 2,130 R Street NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 332-2,249 or 939-8,950; US--Ambassador Robert M. PRINGLE; Embassy at Rue Testard and Rue Mohamed V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako; telephone 225,834

Flag descriptionflag of Mali: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mali - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 80% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population lives as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops--millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock--cattle, sheep, and goats

Industries: small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate, gold, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force:
2,666,000 (1986 est.), 80% agriculture, 19%
services, 1%
industry and commerce (1981; 50% of population of working age (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $338 million; expenditures $559 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $260 million (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins
Partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: $493 million (f.o.b., 1987)
Commodities: textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, sugar, cereals
Partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.1 billion (December 1988 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Mali - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mali - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mali - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 2.5% of GDP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mali - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 37 total, 29 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Mali - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Undercover Tourist

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