Statistical information Mozambique 1990Mozambique

Map of Mozambique | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mozambique in the World
Mozambique in the World


Mozambique - Introduction 1990
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Background: Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites economic dependence on South Africa a severe drought and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989 and a new constitution in 1990 provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy.

Mozambique - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 4,571 km total; Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west


Natural resources: coal, titanium
Land use

Land use: 4% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 56% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: there are 800,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1989 est.)

Mozambique - People 1990
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Population: 14,565,656 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mozambican(s; adjective--Mozambican

Ethnic groups: majority from indigenous tribal groups; about 10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, 15,000 Indians

Languages: Portuguese (official; many indigenous dialects

Religions: 60% indigenous beliefs, 30% Christian, 10% Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 47 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: severe drought and floods occur in south; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 38%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mozambique - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of Mozambique

Government type: people's republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 25 June 1975

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986; Head of Government--Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since 17 July 1986)

Legislative branch: Mozambique Armed Forces (including Army, Border Guard, Naval Command, Air Defense Forces)

Judicial branch: People's Courts at all levels

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Valeriano FERRAO; Chancery at Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington DC 20,036; telephone (202) 293-7,146; US--Ambassador Melissa F. WELLS; Embassy at 3rd Floor, 35 Rua Da Mesquita, Maputo (mailing address is P. O. Box 783, Maputo; telephone 743,167 or 744,163

Flag descriptionflag of Mozambique: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mozambique - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, with a per capita GDP of little more than $100, Mozambique has failed to exploit the economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an economic reform policy, has resulted in successive years of economic growth since 1985. Agricultural output, nevertheless, is only at about 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Industry operates at only 20-40% of capacity. The economy depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 50% of GDP, over 80% of labor force, and about 90% of exports; cash crops--cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops--cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass, asbestos), tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1989 est.)

Labor force: NA, but 90% engaged in agriculture
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 40.0 (1988)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $186 million; expenditures $239 million, including capital expenditures of $208 million (1988 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $100 million (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: shrimp 48%, cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%
Partners: US, Western Europe, GDR, Japan

Imports: $764 million (c.i.f., 1988), including aid
Commodities: food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
Partners: US, Western Europe, USSR

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.4 billion (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1--800 (September 1989), 528.60 (1988), 289.44 (1987), 40.43 (1986), 43.18 (1985)

Mozambique - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mozambique - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mozambique - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 8.4% of GDP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mozambique - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 203 total, 153 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 29 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 306 km crude oil (not operating; 289 km refined products



Waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Merchant marine: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,806 GRT/12,873 DWT

Ports and terminals

Mozambique - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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