Statistical information Myanmar 1990Myanmar

Map of Myanmar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Myanmar in the World
Myanmar in the World

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Myanmar - Introduction 1990
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Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory the military junta ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi has been under house arrest since 1989; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.


Myanmar - Geography 1990
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area

Land boundaries: 5,876 km total; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September; less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation

Natural resources: crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use

Land use: 15% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 49% forest and woodland; 34% other; includes 2% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes


Myanmar - People 1990
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Population: 41,277,389 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Burmese; adjective--Burmese

Ethnic groups: 68% Myanmarn, 9% Shan, 7% Karen, 4% Rakhine, 3% Chinese, 2% Mon, 2% Indian, 5% other

Languages: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Religions: 85% Buddhist, 15% animist beliefs, Muslim, Christian, or other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 33 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September; deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 78%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Myanmar - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Union of Myanmar; note--the local official name is Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw which has been translated as Union of Myanma or Union of Myanmar

Government type: military government

Capital: Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular--yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular--pyine; Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)

Legal system: martial law in effect throughout most of the country; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council and Prime Minister Gen. SAW MAUNG (since 18 September 1988)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force

Judicial branch: Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18 September 1988

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador U MYO AUNG; Chancery at 2,300 S Street NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 332-9,044 through 9,046; there is a Burmese Consulate General in New York; US--Ambassador Burton LEVIN; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (mailing address is G. P. O. Box 521, Rangoon or Box B, APO San Francisco 96,346; telephone 82,055 or 82,181

Flag descriptionflag of Myanmar: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Myanmar - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Myanmar is one of the poorest countries in Asia, with a per capita GDP of about $280. The government reports negligible growth for FY88. The nation has been unable to achieve any significant improvement in export earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports. For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In 1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for more than 65% of the work force.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry; self-sufficient in food; principal crops--paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of export revenues; 1985 fish catch of 644 million metric tons

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: - 1.5% (FY88)

Labor force:
16,036,000; 65.2% agriculture, 14.3%
industry, 10.1% trade, 6.3% government, 4.1% other (FY89 est.)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.4% in urban areas (FY87)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $5.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (FY89 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $311 million (f.o.b., FY88 est.)
Commodities: teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems
Partners: Southeast Asia, India, China, EC, Africa

Imports: $536 million (c.i.f., FY88 est.)
Commodities: machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
Partners: Japan, EC, CEMA, China, Southeast Asia

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1--6.5188 (January 1990), 6.7049 (1989), 6.3945 (1988), 6.6535 (1987), 7.3304 (1986), 8.4749 (1985)


Myanmar - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Myanmar - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Myanmar - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $315.0 million, 21.0% of central government budget (FY88)r

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Myanmar - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 88 total, 81 usable; 29 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude, 1,343 km; natural gas, 330 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Merchant marine: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 595,814 GRT/955,924 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 15 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical, 16 bulk

Ports and terminals


Myanmar - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production is on the increase as growers respond to the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs


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