Statistical information New Zealand 1990New%20Zealand

Map of New Zealand | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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New Zealand in the World
New Zealand in the World

Austrian Airlines

New Zealand - Introduction 1990
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Background: The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand withdrew from a number of defense alliances during the 1970s and 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding native Maori grievances.

New Zealand - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains


Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 53% meadows and pastures; 38% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 1% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


New Zealand - People 1990
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Population: 3,295,866 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Nationality: noun--New Zealander(s; adjective--New Zealand

Ethnic groups: 88% European, 8.9% Maori, 2.9% Pacific Islander, 0.2% other

Languages: English (official), Maori

Religions: 81% Christian, 18% none or unspecified, 1% Hindu, Confucian, and other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 16 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrant/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

New Zealand - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: none; abbreviated NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville

Dependent areas: (3) Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty), 6 February (1840)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II ( since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General The Most Rev. Sir Paul REEVES (since 20 November 1985; Head of Government--Prime Minister Geoffrey PALMER (since 8 August 1989; Deputy Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 8 August 1989)

Legislative branch: Royal New Zealand Navy, New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Air Force

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, ANZUS, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, OECD, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Harold Huyton FRANCIS; Chancery at 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 328-4,800; there are New Zealand Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York; US--Ambassador Della NEWMAN; Embassy at 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington (mailing address is Private Bag, Wellington, or FPO San Francisco 96,690-0001; telephone p64o (4) 722-068; there is a US Consulate General in Auckland

Flag descriptionflag of New%20Zealand: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

New Zealand - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The results have been mixed; inflation is down from double-digit levels but growth has been sluggish and unemployment, always a highly sensitive issue, has been at a record high 7.4%. In 1988 GDP fell by 1% and in 1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 9% of GNP and 10% of the work force; livestock predominates--wool, meat, dairy products all export earners; crops--wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, and vegetables; surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a record 431,000 metric tons in 1987

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining

Industrial production growth rate: - 1.6% (FY88)

Labor force:
1,591,900; 67.4%
services, 19.8% manufacturing, 9.3% primary production (1987)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.4% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $18.6 billion; expenditures $19.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., FY89)
Commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactures, chemicals, foresty products
Partners: EC 18.3%, Japan 17.9%, Australia 17.5%, US 13.5%, China 3.6%, South Korea 3.1%

Imports: $7.5 billion (c.i.f., FY89)
Commodities: petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment
Partners: Australia 19.7%, Japan 16.9%, EC 16.9%, US 15.3%, Taiwan 3.0%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $17.0 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6581 (January 1990), 1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

New Zealand - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

New Zealand - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

New Zealand - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 2.1% of GDP, or $820 million (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

New Zealand - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 157 total, 157 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 47 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 1,000 km natural gas; 160 km refined products; 150 km condensate



Waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Merchant marine: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 190,553 GRT/257,782 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 2 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar carrier, 4 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

Ports and terminals

New Zealand - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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