Statistical information Oman 1990Oman

Map of Oman | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Oman in the World
Oman in the World


Oman - Introduction 1990
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Background: In 1970 QABOOS bin Said Al Said ousted his father and has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world and has preserved a long-standing political and military relationship with Britain. Oman's moderate independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.

Oman - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 1,374 km total; Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, PDRY 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: to be defined
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south


Natural resources: crude oil, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Land use

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 95% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam Peninsula controlling Strait of Hormuz (17% of world's oil production transits this point going from Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea)

Oman - People 1990
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Population: 1,457,064 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Omani(s; adjective--Omani

Ethnic groups: almost entirely Arab, with small Balochi, Zanzibari, and Indian groups

Languages: Arabic (official; English, Balochi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Religions: 75% Ibadhi Muslim; remainder Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, some Hindu

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 43 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and duststorms in interior; sparse natural freshwater resources

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 105 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 20%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Oman - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman

Government type: absolute monarchy; independent, with residual UK influence

Capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: none

Dependent areas

Independence: 1650, expulsion of the Portuguese

National holiday: National Day, 18 November

Constitution: none

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police

Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil court system

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Awadh Bader AL-SHANFARI; Chancery at 2,342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 387-1980 through 1982; US--Ambassador Richard BOEHM; Embassy at address NA, Muscat (mailing address is P. O. Box 966, Muscat; telephone 738-231 or 738-006

Flag descriptionflag of Oman: three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and green (double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Oman - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the oil industry. Petroleum accounts for nearly all export earnings, about 70% of government revenues, and more than 50% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of 4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years' supply at the current rate of extraction. Although agriculture employs a majority of the population, urban centers depend on imported food.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 3.4% of GDP and 60% of the labor force (including fishing; less than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence farming (dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle; not self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper

Industrial production growth rate: 5.0% (1986)

Labor force: 430,000; 60% agriculture (est.), 58% are non-Omani
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $3.1 billion; expenditures $4.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.0 billion (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
Commodities: petroleum, reexports, processed copper, dates, nuts, fish
Partners: Japan, South Korea, Thailand

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.), commodities --machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Partners: Japan, UAE, UK, FRG, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1--0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)

Oman - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Oman - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Oman - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 16.5% of GDP, or $1.3 billion (1990 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Oman - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 128 total, 119 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 63 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Oman - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: Administrative Line with PDRY; no defined boundary with most of UAE, Administrative Line in far north

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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