Statistical information Paraguay 1990Paraguay

Map of Paraguay | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Paraguay in the World

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Paraguay - Introduction 1990
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Background: In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory. It stagnated economically for the next half century. In the Chaco War of 1932-35 large economically important areas were won from Bolivia. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER was overthrown in 1989 and relatively free and regular presidential elections have been held since then.

Paraguay - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 3,920 km total; Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere


Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, limestone, hydropower, timber
Land use

Land use: 20% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 39% meadows and pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 5% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

Paraguay - People 1990
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Population: 4,660,270 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Paraguayan(s; adjective--Paraguayan

Ethnic groups: 95% mestizo (Spanish and Indian), 5% white and Indian

Languages: Spanish (official) and Guarani

Religions: 90% Roman Catholic; Mennonite and other Protestant denominations

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 36 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: local flooding in southeast (early September to June; poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 81%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Paraguay - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay

Government type: republic

Capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular--departamento; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canendiyu, Central, Chaco, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

Dependent areas

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain) Constitution 25 August 1967

National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)


Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 and up to age 60

Executive branch: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Andres RODRIGUEZ Pedotti (since 15 May 1989)

Legislative branch: Paraguayan Army, Paraguayan Navy, Paraguayan Air Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Marcos MARTINEZ MENDIETA; Chancery at 2,400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 483-6,960 through 6,962; there are Paraguayan Consulates General in New Orleans and New York, and a Consulate in Houston; US--Ambassador Timothy L. TOWELL; Embassy at 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion (mailing address is C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO Miami 34,036-0001; telephone p595o (21) 201-041 or 049

Flag descriptionflag of Paraguay: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles; the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justica (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Paraguay - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The economy is predominantly agricultural. Agriculture, including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GNP, employs about 45% of the labor force, and provides the bulk of exports. Paraguay has no known significant mineral or petroleum resources, but does have a large hydropower potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined compared with the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an average annual rate of nearly 11%. During 1982-86 real GDP fell three out of five years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and foreign debt rose. Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the economy were the completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather for crops, and weak international commodity prices for agricultural exports. In 1987 the economy experienced a modest recovery because of improved weather conditions and stronger international prices for key agricultural exports. The recovery continued through 1988, with a bumper soybean crop and record cotton production. The government, however, must follow through on promises of reforms needed to deal with large fiscal deficits, growing debt arrearages, and falling reserves.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 25% of GDP and 50% of labor force; cash crops--cotton, sugarcane; other crops--corn, wheat, tobacco, soybeans, cassava, fruits, and vegetables; animal products--beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus producer of timber; self-sufficient in most foods

Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1987)

Labor force:
1,300,000; 44% agriculture, 34%
industry and commerce, 18%
services, 4% government (1986)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $609 million; expenditures $909 million, including capital expenditures of $401 million (1988)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1,020 million (registered f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, coffee, tung oil, meat products
Partners: EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%

Imports: $1,010 million (registered c.i.f., 1989 est.)
Commodities: capital goods 35%, consumer goods 20%, fuels and lubricants 19%, raw materials 16%, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco 10%
Partners: Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.9 billion (1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: guaranies (G) per US$1--1,200.20 (November 1989; floated in February 1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989), 339.17 (1986), 306.67 (1985)

Paraguay - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Paraguay - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Paraguay - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: NA

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Paraguay - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 873 total, 753 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 52 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 3,100 km

Merchant marine: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,735 GRT/26,043 DWT; includes 13 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker; note--1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially

Ports and terminals

Paraguay - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: short section of the boundary with Brazil (just west of Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade with an estimated 300 hectares cultivated in 1988; important transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for the US and Europe


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