Statistical information Peru 1990Peru

Map of Peru | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Peru in the World
Peru in the World

World Nomads

Peru - Introduction 1990
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Background: After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.

Peru - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 6,940 km total; Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims: Territorial sea:200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)


Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash
Land use

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 21% meadows and pastures; 55% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes 1% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia

Peru - People 1990
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Population: 21,905,605 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Peruvian(s; adjective--Peruvian

Ethnic groups: 45% Indian; 37% mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry; 15% white; 3% black, Japanese, Chinese, and other

Languages: Spanish and Quechua (official), Aymara

Religions: predominantly Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 28 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 67 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 80% (est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Peru - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Peru

Government type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular--departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional; Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979 Constitution because constituent assembly met in 1979, but Constitution actually took effect the following year; reestablished civilian government with a popularly elected president and bicameral legislature

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President-elect Alberto FUJIMORI (since 10 June 1990; Vice President-elect Maximo San ROMAN (since 10 June 1990; Vice President-elect Carlos GARCIA; President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 1985; First Vice President Luis Alberto SANCHEZ Sanchez (since 28 July 1985; Second Vice President Luis Juan ALVA Castro (since 28 July 1985; Head of Government--Prime Minister Guillermo LARCO Cox (since 3 October 1989)

Legislative branch: Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Andean Pact, AIOEC, ASSIMER, CCC, CIPEC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, INTERPOL, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Cesar G. ATALA; Chancery at 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,036; telephone (202) 833-9,860 through 9,869; Peruvian Consulates General are located in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico; US--Ambassador Anthony QUAINTON; Embassy at the corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima (mailing address is P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1010, or APO Miami 34,031; telephone p51o (14) 338-000

Flag descriptionflag of Peru: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Peru - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The economy is verging on hyperinflation and economic activity is contracting rapidly. Deficit spending is at the root of domestic economic problems, but poor relations with international lenders--the result of curtailing debt payments since 1985--are preventing an inflow of funds to generate a recovery. Reduced standards of living have increased labor tensions, and strikes, particularly in the key mining sector, have cut production and exports. Foreign exchange shortages have forced reductions in vital consumer imports such as food and industrial inputs. Peru is the world's leading producer of coca, from which the drug cocaine is produced.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 12% of GDP, 37% of labor force; commercial crops--coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops--rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products--poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 4.6 million metric tons (1987), world's fifth-largest

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: - 25.0% (1988 est.)

Labor force:
6,800,000 (1986; 44% government and other services, 37% agriculture, 19%
industry (1988 est.)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.0%; underemployment estimated at 60% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $3.2 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $796 million (1986)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.55 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: fishmeal, cotton, sugar, coffee, copper, iron ore, refined silver, lead, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts
Partners: EC 22%, US 20%, Japan 11%, Latin America 8%, USSR 4%

Imports: $2.50 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Partners: US 23%, Latin America 16%, EC 12%, Japan 7%, Switzerland 3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $17.7 billion (December 1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: intis (I/) per US$1--5,261.40 (December 1989), 128.83 (1988), 16.84 (1987), 13.95 (1986), 10.97 (1985)

Peru - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Peru - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Peru - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 4.9% of GNP (1987)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Peru - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 242 total, 226 usable; 35 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 24 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 39 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids, 64 km



Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago Titicaca

Merchant marine: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 341,213 GRT/535,215 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 8 bulk; note--in addition, 7 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used commercially

Ports and terminals

Peru - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: two sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca producer and source of supply for coca paste and cocaine base; about 85% of cultivation is for illicit production; most of coca base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market

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