Statistical information Portugal 1990Portugal

Map of Portugal | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Portugal in the World
Portugal in the World


Portugal - Introduction 1990
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Background: Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the loss of its Brazilian colony in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades repressive governments ran the country. In 1974 a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered the EC in 1985.

Portugal - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 1,214 km with Spain

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south


Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble
Land use

Land use: 32% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 6% meadows and pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes 7% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

Portugal - People 1990
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Population: 10,354,497 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Portuguese (sing. and pl.; adjective--Portuguese

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Languages: Portuguese

Religions: 97% Roman Catholic, 1% Protestant denominations, 2% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 12 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 83%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Portugal - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular--distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular--regiao autonoma; Acores*, Aveiro, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Dependent areas: (1) Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1999)

Independence: 1140; independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982; new discussions on constitutional revision began October 1987

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES (since 9 March 1986; Head of Government--Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6 November 1985; Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justica)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Joao Eduardo M. PEREIRA BASTOS; Chancery at 2,125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 328-8,610; there are Portuguese Consulates General in Boston, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Los Angeles, Newark (New Jersey), New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode Island; US--Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL; Embassy at Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon (mailing address is APO New York 9,678-0002; telephone p351o (1) 726-6,600 or 6,659, 8,670, 8,880; there are US Consulates in Oporto and Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag descriptionflag of Portugal: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Portugal - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: During the past four years, the economy has made a sustained recovery from the severe recession of 1983-85. The economy grew by 4.7% in 1987, 4.1% in 1988, and 3.5% in 1989, largely because of strong domestic consumption and investment spending. Unemployment has declined for the third consecutive year, but inflation continues to be about three times the European Community average. The government is pushing economic restructuring and privatization measures in anticipation of the 1992 European Community timetable to form a single large market in Europe.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 9% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small inefficient farms; imports more than half of food needs; major crops--grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector--sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (1988)

Labor force:
4,605,700; 45%
services, 35%
industry, 20% agriculture (1988)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.9% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $19.0 billion; expenditures $22.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $11.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: cotton textiles, cork and cork products, canned fish, wine, timber and timber products, resin, machinery, appliances
Partners: EC 72%, other developed countries 13%, US 6%

Imports: $17.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
Commodities: petroleum, cotton, foodgrains, industrial machinery, iron and steel, chemicals
Partners: EC 67%, other developed countries 13%, less developed countries 15%, US 4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $17.2 billion (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1--149.15 (January 1990), 157.46 (1989), 143.95 (1988), 140.88 (1987), 149.59 (1986), 170.39 (1985)

Portugal - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Portugal - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Portugal - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $1.3 billion (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Portugal - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 69 total, 64 usable; 37 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil, 11 km; refined products, 58 km



Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity

Merchant marine: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 576,654 GRT/1,005,740 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 21 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 10 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note--Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will have the taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience; although only one ship is currently known to fly the Portuguese flag on the MAR register, it is likely that a majority of Portuguese flag ships will transfer to this subregister in a few years

Ports and terminals

Portugal - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: Macau is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1999; East Timor question with Indonesia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Volotea Air

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