Statistical information Singapore 1990Singapore

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Singapore in the World
Singapore in the World


Singapore - Introduction 1990
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Background: Founded as a British trading colony in 1819 Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963 but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP above that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

Singapore - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve


Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use

Land use: 4% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 84% other

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

Singapore - People 1990
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Population: 2,720,915 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Singaporean(s), adjective--Singapore

Ethnic groups: 76.4% Chinese, 14.9% Malay, 6.4% Indian, 2.3% other

Languages: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (official; Malay (national)

Religions: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays nearly all Muslim (minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Taoists, Confucianists)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 18 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: mostly urban and industrialized

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 86.8% (1987)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Singapore - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

Government type: republic within Commonwealth

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20

Executive branch: Chief of State--President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985; Head of Government--Prime Minister LEE Kuan Yew (since 5 June 1959; First Deputy Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 2 January 1985; Second Deputy Prime Minister ONG Teng Cheong (since 2 January 1985)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Army Reserve

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Tommy KOH Tong Bee; Chancery at 1824 R Street NW, Washington DC 20,009; telephone (202) 667-7,555; US--Ambassador Robert D. ORR; Embassy at 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617 (mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96,699; telephone p65o 338-0251

Flag descriptionflag of Singapore: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Singapore - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links derived from its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the economy expanded rapidly, achieving an average annual growth rate of 9%. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia. In 1985 the economy registered its first drop in 20 years and achieved less than a 2% increase in 1986. Recovery was strong. Estimates for 1989 suggest a 9.2% growth rate based on rising demand for Singapore's products in OECD countries, a strong Japanese yen, and improved competitiveness of domestic manufactures.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: occupies a position of minor importance in the economy; self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major crops--rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (1989 est.)

Labor force:
1,280,000; 34.4%
industry, 1.2% agriculture, 61.7%
services (1988)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $5.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (FY88)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $46 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: includes transshipments to Malaysia--petroleum products, rubber, electronics, manufactured goods
Partners: US 24%, Malaysia 14%, Japan 9%, Thailand 6%, Hong Kong 5%, Australia 3%, FRG 3%

Imports: $53 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
Commodities: includes transshipments from Malaysia--capital equipment, petroleum, chemicals, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
Partners: Japan 22%, US 16%, Malaysia 15%, EC 12%, Kuwait 1%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5.2 billion (December 1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US$1--1.8895 (January 1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985)

Singapore - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Singapore - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Singapore - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 5% of GDP, or $1.4 billion (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Singapore - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine: 407 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,286,824 GRT/11,921,610 DWT; includes 126 cargo, 52 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 13 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 103 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 15 liquefied gas, 68 bulk, 3 combination bulk; note--many Singapore flag ships are foreign owned

Ports and terminals

Singapore - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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