Statistical information Swaziland 1990Swaziland

Map of Swaziland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Swaziland in the World
Swaziland in the World


Swaziland - Introduction 1990
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Background: Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968.

Swaziland - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 535 km total; Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains


Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, tin, hydroelelectric power, forests, and small gold and diamond deposits
Land use

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 67% meadows and pastures; 6% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 2% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa geoad2

Swaziland - People 1990
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Population: 778,525 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Swazi(s; adjective--Swazi

Ethnic groups: 97% African, 3% European

Languages: English and siSwati (official; government business conducted in English

Religions: 60% Christian, 40% indigenous beliefs

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 46 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.0 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 67.9%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Swaziland - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland

Government type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane (administrative; Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not been formally presented to the people

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch: Chief of State--King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986; Head of Government--Prime Minister Obed MFANYANA (since 12 July 1989)

Legislative branch: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA; Chancery at 4,301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 362-6,683; US--Ambassador (vacant), Deputy Chief of Mission Armajane KARAER; Embassy at Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane (mailing address is P. O. Box 199, Mbabane; telephone 22,281 through 22,285

Flag descriptionflag of Swaziland: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Swaziland - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies much of the labor force and contributes about 25% to GDP. Manufacturing, which includes a number of agroprocessing factories, accounts for another 25% of GDP. Mining has declined in importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted in 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives 90% of its imports and to which it sends about one-third of its exports.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 25% of GDP and over 60% of labor force; mostly subsistence agriculture; cash crops--sugarcane, citrus fruit, cotton, pineapples; other crops and livestock--corn, sorghum, peanuts, cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar

Industrial production growth rate: 24% (1986)

Labor force: 195,000; over 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture; about 92,000 wage earners (many only intermittently), with 36% agriculture and forestry, 20% community and social services, 14% manufacturing, 9% construction, 21% other; 24,000-29,000 employed in South Africa (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $255 million; expenditures $253 million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (FY91 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $394 million (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: sugar, asbestos, wood pulp, citrus, canned fruit, soft drink concentrates
Partners: South Africa, UK, US

Imports: $386 million (f.o.b., 1988)
Commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Partners: South Africa, US, UK

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $275 million (December 1987)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1--2.5555 (January 1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985; note--the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the South African rand

Swaziland - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Swaziland - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Swaziland - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: NA

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Swaziland - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 23 total, 22 usable; 1 with permanent-surfaced runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Swaziland - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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