Statistical information Sweden 1990Sweden

Map of Sweden | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Sweden in the World
Sweden in the World


Sweden - Introduction 1990
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Background: Having long lost its military prowess of the 17th century, Sweden has evolved into a prosperous and peaceful constitutional monarchy with a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements. As the 20th century comes to an end, this long successful formula is being undermined by high unemployment; the rising cost of a "cradle to the grave" welfare state; the decline of Sweden's competitive position in world markets; and indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe.

Sweden - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 2,193 km total; Finland 536 km, Norway 1,657 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims: Continental shelf:200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west


Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential
Land use

Land use: 7% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 64% forest and woodland; 27% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

Sweden - People 1990
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Population: 8,526,452 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Swede(s; adjective--Swedish

Ethnic groups: homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority; about 12% foreign born or first-generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Languages: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native languages

Religions: 93.5% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.0% Roman Catholic, 5.5% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 13 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution; acid rain

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Sweden - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural; Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 18

Executive branch: Chief of State--King CARL XVI Gustaf (since 19 September 1973; Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July 1977; Head of Government--Prime Minister Ingvar CARLSSON (since 12 March 1986; Deputy Prime Minister Kjell-Olof FELDT (since NA March 1986)

Legislative branch: Royal Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Air Force, Royal Swedish Navy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC--International, Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20,037; telephone (202) 944-5,600; there are Swedish Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and New York; US--Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101, S-115 27 Stockholm; telephone p46o (8) 7,835,300

Flag descriptionflag of Sweden: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Sweden - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has essentially full employment, a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled and intelligent labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. As the 1990s open, however, Sweden faces serious economic problems: long waits for adequate housing, the decay of the work ethic, and a loss of competitive edge in international markets.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops--grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1989)

Labor force: 4,531,000 (1988; 32.8% private services, 30.0% government services, 22.0% mining and manufacturing, 5.9% construction, 5.0% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 0.9% electricity, gas, and waterworks (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $58.0 billion; expenditures $57.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $52.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
Commodities: machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
Partners: EC 52.1%, (FRG 12.1%, UK 11.2%, Denmark 6.8%), US 9.8%, Norway 9.3%

Imports: $48.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
Commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
Partners: EC 55.8% (FRG 21.2%, UK 8.6%, Denmark 6.6%), US 7.5%, Norway 6.0%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $17.9 billion (1988)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1--6.1798 (January 1990), 6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987), 7.1236 (1986), 8.6039 (1985)

Sweden - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Sweden - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Sweden - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: $4.5 billion (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Sweden - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 259 total, 256 usable; 138 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 91 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 84 km natural gas



Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Merchant marine: 173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,856,217 GRT/2,215,659 DWT; includes 9 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 42 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 25 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 combination ore/oil, 6 specialized tanker, 12 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Sweden - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Crystal Travel

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