Statistical information Taiwan 1990Taiwan

Map of Taiwan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Taiwan in the World
Taiwan in the World

Taiwan - Introduction 1990
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Background: In 1895, military defeat forced China to cede Taiwan to Japan, however it reverted to Chinese control after World War II. Following the Communist victory on the mainland in 1949, 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government that over five decades has gradually democratized and incorporated native Taiwanese within its structure. Throughout this period, the island has prospered as one of East Asia's economic tigers. The dominant political issue continues to be the relationship between Taiwan and Mainland China and the question of eventual reunification.

Taiwan - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August; cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west


Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos
Land use

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures; 55% forest and woodland; 15% other; 14% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Taiwan - People 1990
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Population: 20,546,664 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Chinese (sing., pl.; adjective--Chinese

Ethnic groups: 84% Taiwanese, 14% mainland Chinese, 2% aborigine

Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official; Taiwanese and Hakka dialects also used

Religions: 93% mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist; 4.5% Christian; 2.5% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 16 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to earthquakes and typhoons

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 94%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Taiwan - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: none

Government type: one-party presidential regime; opposition political parties legalized in March, 1989

Capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions: 16 counties (hsien, singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), 2 special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural; Chang-hua, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, Yun-lin; note--the Wade-Giles system is used for romanization

Dependent areas


National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Revolution), 10 October (1911)

Constitution: 25 December 1947

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 20

Executive branch: Chief of State--President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988; Vice President LI Yuan-tzu (will take office 20 May 1990; Head of Government--Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) HAO Po-ts'un (since 2 May 1990; Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) SHIH Ch'i-yang (since NA July 1988)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Garrison Command

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: expelled from UN General Assembly and Security Council on 25 October 1971 and withdrew on same date from other charter-designated subsidiary organs; expelled from IMF/World Bank group April/May 1980; member of ADB and PECC, seeking to join GATT and/or MFA; attempting to retain membership in ICAC, ISO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IWC--International Wheat Council; suspended from IAEA in 1972, but still allows IAEA controls over extensive atomic development

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of the US are maintained through a private instrumentality, the Coordination Council for North American Affairs (CCNAA) with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington and 10 other US cities with all addresses and telephone numbers NA; US--unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan are maintained through a private institution, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), which has offices in Taipei at 7 Lane 134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3 with telephone 002 886o (2) 709-2000 and in Kao-hsiung at 88 Wu Fu 3rd Road with telephone NA

Flag descriptionflag of Taiwan: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Taiwan - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable government guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial government ownership of some large banks and industrial firms. Real growth in GNP has averaged about 9% a year during the past three decades. Export growth has been even faster and has provided the impetus for industrialization. Agriculture contributes about 6% to GNP, down from 35% in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13 among major trading countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 6% of GNP and 20% of labor force (includes part-time farmers; heavily subsidized sector; major crops--rice, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock--hogs, poultry, beef, milk, cattle; not self-sufficient in wheat, soybeans, corn; fish catch expanding, 1.1 million metric tons in (1987)

Industries: textiles, clothing, chemicals, electronics, food processing, plywood, sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (1988)

Labor force:
7,880,000; 41%
industry and commerce, 32%
services, 20% agriculture, 7% civil administration (1986)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.7% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $25.9 billion; expenditures $33.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $66.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: textiles 9.7%, electrical machinery 19.0%, general machinery and equipment 14%, telecommunications equipment 9%, basic metals and metal products 7.4%, foodstuffs 0.9%, plywood and wood products 1.3%
Partners: US 36.2%, Japan 13.7%

Imports: $52.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 15.9%, crude oil 5%, chemical and chemical products 11.1%, basic metals 7.4%, foodstuffs 2.0%
Partners: Japan 31%, US 23%, Saudi Arabia 8.6%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: new Taiwan dollars per US$1--26.3 (March 1990), 26.156 (December 1989), 28.589 (1988), 31.845 (1987), 37.838 (1986), 39.849 (1985)

Taiwan - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Taiwan - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Taiwan - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 6.8% of GNP, or $8.2 billion (FY90 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Taiwan - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 38 total, 37 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: 615 km refined products, 97 km natural gas




Merchant marine: 218 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,061,960 GRT/7,634,074 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 61 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 71 container, 14 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 54 bulk

Ports and terminals

Taiwan - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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