Statistical information Thailand 1990Thailand

Map of Thailand | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Thailand in the World
Thailand in the World


Thailand - Introduction 1990
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Background: A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century; it was known as Siam until 1939. Thailand is the only southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II Thailand became a US ally following the conflict.

Thailand - Geography 1990
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Geographic coordinates

Map reference


Land boundaries: 4,863 km total; Myanmar 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specific
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September; dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March; southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat; mountains elsewhere


Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite
Land use

Land use: 34% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 30% forest and woodland; 31% other; includes 7% irrigated

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

Thailand - People 1990
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Population: 55,115,683 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Nationality: noun--Thai (sing. and pl.; adjective--Thai

Ethnic groups: 75% Thai, 14% Chinese, 11% other

Languages: Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite; ethnic and regional dialects

Religions: 95.5% Buddhist, 4% Muslim, 0.5% other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 20 births/1000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1000 population (1990)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 34 deaths/1000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 82%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Thailand - Government 1990
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural; Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Dependent areas

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: 22 December 1978

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age 21

Executive branch: Chief of State--King BHUMIBOL ADULYADEJ (since 9 June 1946; Heir Apparent Crown Prince VAJIRALONGKORN (born 28 July 1952; Head of Government Prime Minister Maj. Gen. CHATCHAI CHUNHAWAN (since 9 August 1988; Deputy Prime Minister CHUAN LIKPHAI

Legislative branch: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force; paramilitary forces include Border Patrol Police, Thahan Phran (irregular soldiers), Village Defense Forces

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarn Dika)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, ASPAC, Association of Tin Producing Countries, CCC, Colombo Plan, GATT, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INRO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador VITTHYA VEJJAJIVA; Embassy at 2,300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20,008; telephone (202) 483-7,200; there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York; US--Ambassador Daniel O'DONAHUE; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96,346; telephone p66o (2) 252-5,040; there is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates in Songkhla and Udorn

Flag descriptionflag of Thailand: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Thailand - Economy 1990
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Economy overview: Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, enjoyed its second straight exceptionally prosperous year in 1989. Real output again rose about 11%. The increasingly sophisticated manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment, and agriculture grew by 4.0% because of improved weather. The trade deficit of $5.2 billion was more than offset by earnings from tourism ($3.9 billion), remittances, and net capital inflows. The government has followed a fairly sound fiscal and monetary policy, aided by increased tax receipts from the fast-moving economy. In 1989 the government approved new projects--roads, ports, electric power, communications--needed to refurbish the now overtaxed infrastructure. Although growth in 1990-91 must necessarily fall below the 1988-89 pace, Thailand's immediate economic outlook is good, assuming the continuation of prudent government policies in the context of a private-sector-oriented development strategy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 16% of GNP and 73% of labor force; leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca; other crops--rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 2.2 million tons (1987)

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, other light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: 12.5% (1989)

Labor force:
26,000,000; 73% agriculture, 11%
industry and commerce, 10%
services, 6% government (1984)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $9.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY89)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $19.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
Commodities: textiles 12%, fishery products 12%, rice 8%, tapioca 8%, jewelry 6%, manufactured gas, corn, tin
Partners: US 18%, Japan 14%, Singapore 9%, Netherlands, Malaysia, Hong Kong, China (1988)

Imports: $25.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
Commodities: machinery and parts 23%, petroleum products 13%, chemicals 11%, iron and steel, electrical appliances
Partners: Japan 26%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, FRG, Malaysia, UK (1987)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $18.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1--25.726 (January 1990), 25.699 (1989), 25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987), 26.299 (1986), 27.159 (1985)

Thailand - Energy 1990
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Thailand - Communication 1990
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Thailand - Military 1990
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 2.9% of GNP, or $1.9 billion (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Thailand - Transportation 1990
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 127 total, 103 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined products, 67 km



Waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Merchant marine: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 483,688 GRT/730,750 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 70 cargo, 8 container, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 1 chemical tanker, 3 bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 1 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Thailand - Transnational issues 1990
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Disputes international: boundary dispute with Laos

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from Myanmar and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication efforts, but unusually good weather boosted output in 1989


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